Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hyptis suaveolens
(L.) Poit., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 19 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Ballota suaveolens L.; Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: mumutun

Chinese: shan xiang

Chuukese: lekenek, mengit, nekenek, nokonok

English: chan, horehound, mintbush, mintweed, pignut, stinking Roger, wild spikenard

French: gros baume, hyptis à odeur

Spanish: chao, hierba de las muelas, hortela do campo

Yapese: lamar nuteth

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Strong-scented herb to 1.5 m tall with quadrate hairy stems and ovate to obovate leaves 3-5 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, the margins serrulate, lower surface densely hairy; petioles up to 3 cm long.  Flowers in small cymes along branch ends with reduced leaves.  Calyx 5 mm long in flower, 10 mm long in fruit, ribbed.  Corolla blue.  Nutlets about 1.2-1.5 mm long, slightly notched at the end" (Stone, 1970; pp. 511-512).

Habitat/ecology:  Favors dry open locations (Stone, 1970; pp. 511-512). In Hawai‘i, "now sparingly naturalized in relatively dry, disturbed sites, 150-300 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 802, 1882). In Australia, "roadsides, disturbed or overgrazed areas, watercourses, pastures and open forests where soil is well drained. Forms dense thickets, especially on flood plain margins and around camp sites." (Smith, 2002; p. 61). In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides and pastures; considered dangerous to livestock. Widely spread at low altitudes" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 106).

Propagation:  "Seed in flower heads spread by water.  Seeds also dispersed by animals, humans, vehicles (including slashers and machinery), and when attached to fur, clothing and mud." (Smith, 2002; p. 61). Often a contaminant in pasture grass seed. As with H. capitata, the seed can remain dormant under the rainforest canopy for many years until an opening is created.

Native range:  Neotropics; widely naturalized in tropics and subtropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 150563)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 241)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 241)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 241)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 150562)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Ulalu (Romonum) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 241)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 241)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 150561)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 241)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 150560)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 150564)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 511-512)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3862 (GUAM), Stone 4393 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 241)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 150612)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 436413)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 655716)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 655718)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23177)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis suaveolens
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 802)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2006) (p. 36)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010726-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120625 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Imada et al. s.n. (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 11)
Initial control action taken.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 486-488)
Widespread; in places a troublesome weed, in others not present.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 106)
Widely spread at low altitudes.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 417)
Very abundant in open waste places at low and medium altitudes.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 83)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 61)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 61)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Weeds in open waste areas. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 235)
Near villages, in wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 50)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Weeds in open waste areas.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 189-190)

Comments:  On Hawai‘i State and Northern Territory, Australia, noxious weed lists.

Control: 

Physical: Grub and burn small infestations.

Chemical: "Use an overall spray of amine or ester 2,4-D, spot spraying where applicable.  All sprays should be applied before flowering begins.  Other herbicides such as dicamba, clopyralid and picloram based mixtures also are effective but more expensive"  (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 490-492).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 MAY 2013.