Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hyptis rhomboidea
Mart. & Galeotti, Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Hyptis capitata var. mexicana Briq.; Hyptis capitata var. pilosa Briq.; Hyptis decurrens (Blanco) Epling

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: diao qiu cao

English: knobweed

Samoan: vao mini, vao mini

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herb 2 dm to 2 m tall, the stems often slightly decumbent and rooting at nodes, angles moderately hirsute with several-celled, irregularly curved hairs, intermarginal surfaces glabrous, lower internodes shorter than subtending leaves, the upper progressively longer, often exceeding leaves; petioles narrowly winged, to 4 cm long, wings gradually ampliate, merging into blades; leaf blades rhomboidally ovate to rhomboid-lanceolate, 3-12 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, acute to attenuate at apex, cuneate at base, coarsely and irregularly serrate, dark green and sparsely hispid above, paler, markedly pellucid-punctate and with more or less appressed, several-celled, coarse hairs along veins beneath, intervenous surfaces glabrous; inflorescences semiglobose, borne on axillary peduncles 1-5 cm long, peduncles hirsute; bracts lanceolate to oblanceolate, 6-12 mm long, acute to acuminate at apex, somewhat more densely hirsute than leaves, entire; flowers crowded in heads, sessile; calyx tube about 1.5-2 mm long, antrorsely short-ciliate, equal or nearly so; fruiting calyces coarsely reticulate-veined between ribs; corolla about 4 mm long, white, bearing hairs to 1 mm long on outer surfaces of upper part of tube and lobes, tube about 2 mm long, gradually  ampliate upward; upper pair of stamens slightly shorter than lower; nutlets about 1 mm long" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 402-404).

"This species is closely related to H. capitata Jacq., but has somewhat narrower and smaller bracts below the heads of the flowers, and broader and shorter calyx teeth"  (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 402-404).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, waste land and pastureas; quite unpalatable to livestock and so, if unchecked, soon becoming dominant in grazing land" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 105). Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 252).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mexico; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Donnegan, Joseph A./Butler, Sarah L./Grabowiecki, Walter/Hiserote, Bruce A./Limtiaco, David (2004) (p. 23)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 43)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 105)
Established in a few lowland areas.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open waste areas. Guangdong, Guangxi.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 235)
On hillslopes, on margin of forests.
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open waste areas.

Comments:  Probably not native to the Galápagos Islands, possibly introduced, per Charles Darwin Research Station.


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This page was created on 22 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 12 MAY 2013.