Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hyptis pectinata
(L.) Poit., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Mesosphaerum pectinatum (L.) Kuntze; Nepeta pectinata L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: mumutun ademelon, mumutun lahe, mumutun palaoan

English: comb bushmint, comb hyptis, mint weed, purple top, wild mint

Fijian: ndamoli, tamole ni veikau, tamoli ni papalagi, tamoli ni vavalangi, timothi ni vavalangi, wavuwavu

French: fausse menthe

Hindi: ban tulsia, ben tulsia

Maori (Cook Islands): miri tītā

Spanish: poleo

Yapese: pathpath

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Slender erect herbaceous subshrub with 4-angled puberulent stems; foliage aromatic if rubbed and crushed; leaves ovate or ovate-elliptic, cuneate to rounded (even subcordate) at base, acute or blunt at tip, puberulent or glabrescent dorsally, crenate-serrate, 2-9 cm long, 1-6 cm wide; flowers subsessile, white to pale violet, in cymules axillary to reduced leaves, subtended by linear pubescent bracts 1-3 mm long; calyx about 2 mm, enlarging in fruit to 4 mm; corolla 2.5 mm, lower lip darker; filaments somewhat pubescent; nutlets oblong, 1 mm long, black."  "Robust plants may reach up to 4 m tall" (Stone, 1970; p. 512).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalizes in low elevation, dry to mesic, disturbed habitats, especially along roadsides and in pastures and open fields, from sea level to 390 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 802).  In Fiji, "a vigorous and aggressive weed of agricultural, pastoral, and plantation lands, found in cultivated areas, wasteland, canefields, and coconut plantations, along roads, and on open hillsides"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 220-221). In New Guinea, "a weed of pastures, unpalatable to livestock and so able to increase under heavy grazing" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 104). In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe arrivée récemment et maintenant commune, surtout sur la côte Ouest" (MacKee, 1994; p. 68).

Propagation:  Seed, often by sticking in the fur of animals or transported by vehicles (Waterhouse, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 169).

Native range:  Mexico and Caribbean to Peru; exact native range obscure; widely naturalized in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 45)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 41749)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 35)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31594 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1907 (US), Fosberg 31718 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58859
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2248 (US, BISH)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 666190)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31395 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635262)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000033)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 23172)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 23173)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Voucher: BMW 5811 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 655725)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 655726)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2000) (voucher ID: BISH 687695)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23175)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 655727)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1950) (voucher ID: PTBG 23174)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Evans 2345 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 655729)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 59)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 594867)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665101)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinzón Group
Pinzón Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Koro Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 220-221)
Voucher cited: Tothill 575
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 220-221)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 836
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 220-221)
Voucher cited: DA 5686
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 220-221)
Voucher cited: DA 5724
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 220-221)
Voucher cited: DA 10508
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 220-221)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1013
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 421387)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 220-221)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 1015, DA 9512, DA 10944, DA 11035, Weiner 256, DA 3940, Simmonds 51, Smith 7227, DA 3363, DA 10581, Meebold 16788, St. John 18915
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 34026)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 34027)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 150570)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 150571)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 150572)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 448643)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 128)
Vouchers cited: Whistler & Guerin 17, Florence 3339
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3339 (PAP), W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 17 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491112)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37289)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 512)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 15061)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 150603)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 150617)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 436412)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649514)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 660043)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000197)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 802)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 802)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H100639 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H120649 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 802)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wysong, Michael/Hughes, Guy/Wood, K. R. (2007) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Wysong 498 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 802)
Voucher cited: Wilder s.n. (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Mauvaise herbe arrivée récemment et maintenant commune, surtout sur le côte Ouest.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 2441, Denizot s.n. s.loc., MacKee 15181, MacKee 15302, Botton in Schmid 3346 (NOU), Cherrier in MacKee 35238, MacKee 40334, Cherrier in MacKee 40537, MacKee 40606
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 240)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1235)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 13, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10165)
Taxon name on voucher: Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 104)
So far established only in a few lowland localities.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Whistler 2439
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Buelow 762
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 93)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 169)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 189)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.

Comments:  On Hawai‘i State noxious weed list. A noxious weed in Fiji. Very prevalent in Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002) and becoming so in Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 MAY 2013.