Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hypochaeris radicata
L., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia pu gong ying mao er ju

English: baby's-tears, cat's-ear, false dandelion, flatweed, gosmore, hairy cat's ear, pee-the-bed, rooted cat's-ear, spotted cat's-ear, wild dandelion

French: chicorée, chicorée-pays, porcelle enracinée

Habit:  herb

Description:  "A slender, erect, branching plant, 1 to 2-1/2 feet high.  Stem slender, smooth, almost free of leaves.  Leaves clustered at the base of the plant, 3 to 5 inches long, 1/4 to 1/2 inch wide, paddle-shaped, on long leafstalk, covered with hairs on both surfaces, margin smooth, mid-rib prominent.  Flower heads yellow, 3/4 to 1 inch across, on branching, leafless stalks, each flower with a narrow, pointed, chaffy scale at its base; heads enclosed by scales about 1/2 inch long, the outer ones short, inner bracts longer, sparsely clothed with hairs.  Fruit 1/4 inch long, rough, with slender neck; chaff or fruit-scale as long as the fruit and its bristles"  (Haselwood, 1966; p. 422).

Description from Flora of China online.
Description from Flora of North America.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grassland, riparian habitats, seasonal freshwater wetlands, coastal beaches"  A native of grassy palces and meadows, this plant forms extensive colonies where invasive that shade out native grasses and forbs, and prevent the establishment of shrubs and trees.  It tolerates a wide range of soils and strongly competes with native species.  Establishment occurs mainly in disturbed sites"  (Weber, 2003; p. 211).

This small rosette herb favors higher elevations.  It has a deep, succulent taproot favored by feral pigs, which dig up large areas searching for the roots (Smith, 1985; p. 192).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and often common, usually in wet but also relatively dry, disturbed sites, 1,100-2,800 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 327). In New Zealand, "pasture, grassland, lawns, sand dunes, roadsides, riverbeds, waste ground, stony ground, railway ballast, scrub and damaged forest, swamps, up to 1400 m" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 334).  In Taiwan, "widely naturalized in the central mountain region, common in meadows, on roadsides and around mountain farms, 1,700-2,400 m"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

Propagation:  Seeds are produced in large numbers and dispersed by wind. It regenerates rapidly from the crown of the taproot after fire (Smith, 1985; p. 192).

Native range:  Europe, northern Africa (including Madeira and Canary Islands) and western Asia; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 206)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 18)
"A weed of grassland". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 2833 (NSW), A.N. Rodd 1811 (NSW), J.D. McComish 202 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
A weed of grassland"A weed of grassland". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 207 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 372 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 625 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 81)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 460, 465, 554)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 460, 465, 554)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 460, 465, 554)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2962 (PAP)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 327)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 327)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 327)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 327)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Flynn et al. 4859 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 327)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 327)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2002) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: R. Heu s.n. (BISH 662906)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 334)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 93)
Present status unknown.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Yunnan
Naturalized
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (pp. 188-189)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 334)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Scattered plants can be dug out, crowns must be removed to prevent regrowth".

Chemical:  "Effective herbicides are MCPA salts, or 2,4-D amine and esters"  (Weber, 2003; p. 211).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 MAY 2013.