Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hydrocotyle ranunculoides
L. f., Araliaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: floating pennywort, water pennywort

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Plants entirely glabrous, the stems fleshy, floating in water or creeping. Leaves non-peltate, suborbicular to reniform and frequently broader than long, 0.5-8 cm in diameter, shallowly to rather deeply 3-7-lobed, the lobes rounded, crenate or lobulate, subequal. Petioles 1-35 cm long. Peduncles much shorter than the leaves, 0.5-6 cm long. Umbels 3-8-flowered, the petals greenish-white. Involucral bracts oval to orbicular, up to 1 mm long. Styles much shorter than fruit width, spreading, the stylopodium depressed. Pedicels 1-3 mm long, spreading. Fruit suborbicular to transversely elliptical, moderately flattened, 1.5-2.5 mm long, 2-3 mm broad, often maculate, the ribs filiform or obscure" (Mathias & Constance, 1976; p. 22).

Habitat/ecology:  Aquatic. "Dense growth can smother static or slowly flowing waterways, particularly in nutrient-rick waters" (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998).  "Naturalized populations exist in coastal, freshwater streams of Western Australia, where it is reported to have escaped from ornamental garden ponds" (Keighery, 1994, cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 167).

Propagation:  Rooting at nodes, stem fragments, seed.

Native range:  North and South America, Africa, Yemen; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 167)
Western Australia; subject of an eradication program.
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 186)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 8 MAY 2013.