Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Homalanthus populifolius
R. C. Graham, Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Omalanthus populifolius Graham, orth. var.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: bleeding-heart-tree, native bleeding-heart, native-poplar, Queensland poplar

Kwara‘ae: nunumba, sikima

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Shrub or tree, up to 12 m tall, dbh 5 cm, with a straight bole and an open, spreading crown. Stipules c. 1.5 cm long. Leaves: petiole 1.5-7 cm long, glandless; lamina orbiculate to ovate, 3-11.5 by 2.5-9 cm, index 1.1-1.8, base obtuse, very base often attenuate, not peltate, apex acuminate, lower surface whitish with most of venation of different color, side veins in 9-13 pairs below the apex, angle of divergence 45-60, hardly jointed toward the margins, tertiary veins percurrent, quarternary veins reticulate, adaxially with an undivided, disc-shaped, prominent gland on junction lamina base/petiole, 0.75-1 mm in diameter, abaxially with 0-2 laminar glands c. 0.35 mm in diam. and c. 2-4 mm distant from leaf margin, basal ones not enlarged. Inflorescences 4-9 cm long, bisexual, the staminate part c. 6 mm in diameter. Bracts of staminate cymules 0.75-1 mm long, with a comparatively small pair of roundish to pillow-shaped glands c. 0.25 (-0.6) mm long, distinctly overtopped by the bract, sometimes with 2 or 3 pairs of glands, rarely glandless. Staminate flowers 1 (-3) per cymule; pedicel 0.75-2 mm long; sepals 2, 0.6-1 mm long, stamens 6-8 per flower, with filaments c. 0.3 mm long and anthers c. 0.4 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1-4 per thyrse; pedicel c. 5-15 mm long; sepals 2, 0.75-1.25 mm long; ovary 1.5-2 mm long, bicarpellate, papillate or glabrous, style c. 0.25-1 mm long, stigma 1-4 by 0.4-0.5 mm, undivided, with minute apical gland c. 0.4 mm long or rarely glandless. Fruits 1-4 per infructescence; bract sometimes persistent; pedicel 1.2-3.8 cm long; calyx hardly persistent; fruit excel. style 5-8 by 6-8 mm, sulcate, not carinate, papillate or not, style persistent; regularly opened fruits not seen" (Esser, 1997; pp. 450-452).

Habitat/ecology:  "Found in lowland and lower montane forest regrowth, secondary forest, well drained or swamp forest, on ridges, riversides. Altitude: from sea level up to 1000 m" (Esser, 1997; pp. 450-452).

Propagation:  "Seed is spread by birds, water, and machinery, especially roadside mowers"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Native range:  NE and E Australia (Queensland, New South Wales), Solomon Islands and Malesia (Esser, 1997; pp. 450-452).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"Widespread on Lord Howe Is. at lower elevations, especially in moist habitats". Vouchers cited: R.D. Hoogland 8695(NSW), J. Pickard 3472 (NSW), J. Pickard 2822 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Ziesing, P. (1997) (p. 37)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"On Norfolk Is. confined to the National Park". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1174 (K), A.C.Quintall (CHR), R.M. Laing (CHR)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: B. Stevens 11 (BISH), Starr & Starr 0205021 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 11)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Starr & Starr 0204041 (BISH), Oppenheimer & F. Duvall H50203 (BISH, PTBG)
Papua New Guinea
Admiralty Islands
Admiralty Island native
Esser, H.-J. (1997)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Esser, H.-J. (1997)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Esser, H.-J. (1997)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 81)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 633)
"Mixed secondary vegetation, waste places".
Occasional escape.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, D./Sussman, R. W. (1988) (pp. 187-204)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Mauremootoo, J. (2004) (p. 6)

Control: 

Physical:  "Grub out seedlings (all year round).  Replant site with native species to prevent re-establishment.

Chemical:  1. Cut and stump paint larger plants: Vigilant gel. 2. Spray smaller plants: metsulferon methyl 600g/kg (5g /10L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 31 MAY 2011.