Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Holcus lanatus
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Holcus argenteus C. Agardh ex Roem. & Schult.; Notholcus lanatus (L.) Nash ex Hitchc.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: rong mao cao

English: common velvet grass, creeping soft grass, fog grass, meadow softgrass, soft meadow grass, velvet grass, woolly soft grass, Yorkshire fog

French: foin de mouton, heno blanco, holoque laineuse, houlque velue

Japanese: shiragegaya

Korean: udanpul

Spanish: grama vellosa, heno blanco, holco velloso, pasto velludo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennials; culms 30-60 cm tall, velvety canescent.  Sheaths 6-12 cm long, striate, velvety canescent; ligule membranous, 1-2 mm long, narrowly lacerate, with short hairs at apex; blades 10-20 cm long, 4-8 mm wide, velvety canescent, the midrib prominent.  Inflorescences silvery to purplish, paniculate, contracted, sometimes almost spike-like, 8-15 cm long, occasionally enclosed within the uppermost sheath; spikelets 4-4.5 mm long, short-pedicellate; glumes 4-4.5 mm long, keeled, the keels hirsute, otherwise scabrous, first glume 1-nerved, 0.5-0.7 mm wide from keel to margin, second glume 3-nerved, 1-1.2 mm wide from keel to margin; lemma of perfect floret ca. 2 mm long, rather broad, slightly keeled, the keel hirtellous, lemma of staminate floret 2-2.5 mm long, narrow, acute, indistinctly keeled, the keel minutely hirtellous, apex with a hooked awn ca. 1.5 mm long; palea 1.7-2 mm long, minutely hirtellous at apex.  Caryopsis pale brown, fusiform, ca. 1.6 mm long, laterally compressed, trigonous, with an adaxial groove"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1551).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Coastal grassland and scrub, disturbed sites.  Where native, this grass is found in mesic to wet meadows, open forests, reed swamps, grassland, and open woods.  It is tolerant of a wide range of soils.  Itis invasive because it forms dense swards that reduce native species richness and eliminate native grasses and forbs"  (Weber, 2003; p. 201).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in wet, disturbed areas such as pastures, grasslands, mesic shrubland and along roadsides, 760-3,250 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1551); "suppresses establishment of natives in higher-elevation mesic areas"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Propagation:  "The grass is a prolific seed producer, and the seeds are dispersed by wind"  (Weber, 2003; p. 201).

Native range:  Europe (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1551). Europe, northern Africa, western Asia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1551)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1551)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1551)
East Maui.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Meidell, J. Scott/Bartlett, R. T. (1999) (p. 10)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H79810 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1551)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1551)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 315)
"Roadsides, waste land, pasture and grassland, along tracks or streams in forest, often in damp or swampy ground; sea level to montane, rarely subalpine".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 168)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open ground, meadows, moist places; an adventive occasionally cultivated as a meadow grass. Jiangxi, Yunnan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 83)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 315)
"Roadsides, waste land, pasture and grassland, along tracks or streams in forest, often in damp or swampy ground; sea level to montane, rarely subalpine".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open ground, meadows, moist places; an adventive occasionally cultivated as a meadow grass.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé/±envahissant"
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  Intensive mowing or grazing suppresses the establishment and spread of this grass"  (Weber, 2003; p. 201).

Chemical: "Susceptible to foliar application of glyphosate at 1-1.5% product (Hank Oppenheimer, Maui Pine)" (Motooka et al., 2003).  "Effective herbicides are atrazine or diuron"  (Weber, 2003; p. 201).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 8 MAY 2013.