Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hemigraphis reptans
(G.Forst.) T.Anderson, Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Strobilanthes reptans (G. Forst.) Moylan ex Y.F. Deng & J.R.I. Wood

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: pu fu ban cha hua

English: red flame, red lily, waffle plant

Kapingamarangi: keinga maitai

Kwara‘ae: ba‘ekorara

Marshallese: utilõmjãn, wut lamjen, wut lomjen

Other: kouamerzé

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial; stems short, sprawling to prostrate, the nodes rooting, not especially swollen; petioles 6-18 mm long; leaf blades 2-6 (10) cm long, 1.2-2.8 (6) cm wide, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, obtuse to truncate basally, rounded to obtuse apically, crenate, suffused with purple beneath; peduncles 1.4-4.2 cm long, naked, borne in leaf axils or terminal; flowers sessile, solitary or few, ikn axils of opposite, foliose, spatulate bracts; calyx cylindric, 7-8 mm long, the lobes separating and persistent in fruit, strigose; corolla 11-13 (15) mm long, white or whitish, suffused with purple within; capsules 6-7 mm long, elastically dehiscent, the two valves bearing prominent spinose retinacula along the axis of the placenta; glabrous below, antrorsely pubescent and on the subpersistent style." (Welsh, 1998; p. 21).

Similar to H. alternata except: "leaves oblong-elliptic to narrowly ovate, 4-15 cm long, 1.6-4.3 cm wide, moderately hispidulous, margins crenulate, base truncate, or rounded. Flowers subtended by spatulate bracts 15-25 mm long, on stalks 6-7 mm long; corolla white, ca. 10 mm long. Capsules narrowly ellipsoid, ca. 6-7 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 171-172).

Description from Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  A lawn weed in Hawai‘i (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 171-172).  "Weed of roadsides, ponds, and streamsides; near sea level to 400 m"  (Flora of China online).

Propagation:  Seed but often by cuttings.

Native range:  "Native range unknown, but originally described from Aru Island off the coast of New Guinea" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 171-172). Fosberg et al. (1979; p. 257) list as native to Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 16351)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis reptans
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 26148 (BISH)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: BRY 25954
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2773 (PAP), J. Florence 6607 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 171-172)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 171-172)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Meidell, J. Scott/Bartlett, R. T. (1999) (p. 7)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Flynn & Tully 2440 (BISH), Oppenheimer 320 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (pp. 1-2)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H109909 (BISH), Oppenheimer H80019 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2002) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: S. Anderson s.n. (BISH 605522)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 171-172)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Allerton 2709 (US)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 30867)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis reptans
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 30)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 35)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 39461 (US), Fosberg 41384 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Whistler 11227
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. iii)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 3734, Anderson 3764
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 4)
"Abundant to very abundant; dense areas covered by this low-lying plant, often around the bases of coconut trees; in most environments including the forests and less cultivated areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 58)
Adventive
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
abo. intro.
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 285)
Voucher cited: St. John 41433 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A8)
Occasional; in ruderal areas near houses and in fields, Mili, Tokewa, Nallo.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou native
Heine, Heino (1976) (pp. 31-32)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2254, Deplance 61, acKee 5262
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) native
Heine, Heino (1976) (pp. 31-32)
Voucher cited: Däniker 1990
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre native
Heine, Heino (1976) (pp. 31-32)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 533, Baudouin 293, MacKee 19711, Mackee 22457, Pancher s.n., de Pompéry s.n., Védel s.n., Vieillard 548, Virot 764, Däniker 1656
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 32)
Vouchers cited: Hosokawa 9294 (A, BISH), Hosokawa 7120 (A), Tuyama 9355 (K), Kanehira and Hatusima 4951 (FU), Hatusima 5083 (FU)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2006) (voucher ID: BNM 1123)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis reptans
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 32)
Vouchers cited: Kanehira 463 (FU, BISH), Kanehira and Hatusima 4445 (FU), Hosokawa 7400 (A), Evans 587 (US, BISH, POM), Fosberg 47552 (US, BISH, POM, K)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Carp Resort
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 7)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeremdiu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 46970)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis reptans (G. Forst.) T. Anderson
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerukuid (Ngerukeuid, Seventy) Islands   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 257)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 1991)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis reptans (Forst.) T. Anders
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1991) (voucher ID: BNM 9559)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis reptans (Forst.) T. Anders.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 511)
Common everywhere; in secondary forest, under coconuts, at roadsides or even on bare coral rocks along the foreshore. Sometimes it covers whole areas in open bush and at forest margins.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 32)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 80)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 243)
Cited: Moseley. Not seen by Yuncker and presence in doubt.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
As Strobilanthes reptans (G. Forster) Moylan ex Y. F. Deng & J. R. I. Wood


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This page was created on 4 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 31 DEC 2012.