Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Hemigraphis alternata
(Burm.f.) T.Anderson, Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) Hallier fil.; Ruellia alternata Burm. f.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: cemetery plant, metal leaf, metallic plant, purple waffle plant, red ivy, red-flame ivy

Marshallese: kinwoj, utilojan

Other: pouanili-ouindi

Samoan: suipi

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Creeping perennial herb, entirely purplish except the whitish (but purple-streaked) corollas; leaves bronzy-purple above, reddish-purple beneath, ovate, subcordate, serrate-crenate, 2-8 cm long, on petioles nearly as long as the blades; spikes erect, 2-3 cm long bracteate, bracts purple, crowded, 1 cm long, overlapping, calyx purple, lobes 5, narrow, less than 1 cm long; corolla 2 cm long; capsule slender; seeds 4-20"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 534-535).

Habitat/ecology:  Shade-tolerant species, capable of growing and invading beneath forest overstories.  In Fiji, "cultivated in settlements and villages and sparingly naturalized along trails from near sea level to perhaps 200 m elevation" (Smith, 1991; pp. 120-121).  In Niue, adventive "in several places on the Terraces on the west side, large mats being seen in disturbed, open forest"  (Sykes, 1970; p. 38).

Propagation:  Cuttings.

Native range:  Indonesia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere in the tropics (GRIN). Used ornamentally as a ground cover.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 45)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9215, Whistler 1353
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 63)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9215 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 127558)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 417942)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 10401)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 7)
Reported to be present by a reliable source.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 35)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 127557)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 75)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 80)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 86)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 92)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 67)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 256)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 64)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mamanuthas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 120-121)
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 120-121)
Voucher cited: Smith 7672
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 127558)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 120-121)
Voucher cited: Bierhorst F127
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 120-121)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 983A, DA 12121, St. John 18920
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 127562)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11169 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 2182 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42531)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. f.) T. Anders
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 127a
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 127554)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis colorata (Bl.) Hallier f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 127555)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis colorata (Bl.) Hallier f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Sachet & Maclet 2087
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2600 (PAP)
Devient subspontané.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 336)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5646 (PAP)
Naturalisée sur un talus.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 336)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 534-535)
Voucher cited: G.E.S. 343
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 256)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 127573)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 171)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 58)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 80)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
Heine, Heino (1976) (p. 30)
Vouchers cited: Barrau in MacKee 20022, MacKee 21756
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: CHR 169941
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 5)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 109)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9964 (BISH)
"Occasional along roadsides and in waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 11)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 256)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 420287)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Lorence 8183 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 28552)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. f.) T. Anderson
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 16, 81)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Voucher: Flynn 6921 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 336)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83898)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 314)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Buelow 202
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Soakai 728, Soakai 788, Soakai 828
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 7)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Soakai 1051
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 36631)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.f.) T.Anderson
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 5)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 48)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 115)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 158)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 811 (K, US), Wiehe 1615 (MAU), Rhyne 746 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (pp. 25, 32)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37894)
Taxon name on voucher: Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. f.) T. Anderson
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe (2004) (p. 345)

Comments:  Will grow and reproduce under low light conditions.

A lot of it seen on the trail leading up the hill to Robert Louis Stevenson's grave, Samoa, apparently escaped from the gardens on the estate; naturalized elsewhere as well (Space & Flynn, 2002). Naturalized and spreading in Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2013.