Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Heliotropium indicum
L., Boraginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Bikol: buntot-leon

Chamorro: berbena

Chinese: da wei yao

English: erysipelas plant, Indian heliotrope, scorpion weed, turnsole, wild clary

Filipino: punta elepante

French: herbe à verrues, herbe papillon, monte au ciel

Iloko: pengnga-pengnga

Spanish: alacrancillo, borraja de la tierra, cola de alacrán, cola de escorpion, flor de alacrán, heliotropo silvestre, hierba de alacrán, largatillo, pico de zope

Tagalog: buntot-leon

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herb, slightly woody at base, with a long taproot, stem erect, unbranched or branches few, 30-80 cm tall; leaves alternate or sometimes subopposite, distinctly petiolate, petioles to 5 cm long, blade long-decurrent on petiole from a subtruncate base, ovate-deltoid, margin slightly wavy-crisped, 2.5-10 cm long, 1-5 cm wide, acute (blunt), lateral veins 4-7 pairs; inflorescence terminal, simple or rarely once-forked, flowers along one side, sessile, tip coiled, axis up to 20 cm long; lowest flowers opening first; flowers pale violet (lilac) with a yellow throat, but fading to dull white, calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, ciliate, 2 mm long; corolla-tube 4-5 mm long; lobes rounded; fruit 3.5 mm long, ovoid, ribbed, separating into 2 nutlets each 2-celled, 3-3.5 mm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 500).

Habitat/ecology:  "It is usually associated with the moist rich soils of the lowland tropics near rivers and lakes, on dikes and roadsides, and in waste places, fallow rice fields, pools, ditches, or muddy soils which dry out periodically.  The plant prospers in open sunny areas.  It may also be found in moist sandy soils or in shallow swamps" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 291).

Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 219). In New Caledonia, "peu commun dans la végétation secondaire d'endroits humides" (MacKee, 1994; p. 24).

Propagation:  "Reproduces by seeds which are produced in quantity on the long, curled, one-sided spikes.  The plants flower all year round in the Philippines" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 291).

Native range:  Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru; widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island probably introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1980) (p. 212)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 3270 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58986
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Evans 2440 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Galápagos Islands
Galápagos Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
Ualan
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 14)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4030 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 500)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 24)
Vouchrs cited: Franc s.n. (BM), Blanchon 1365 (NOU), MacKee 27690, MacKee 27721, MacKee 36257, MacKee 40603
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 231)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 38)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 377)
A common weed in the settled areas at low altitudes.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 80)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hills, river banks, open waste places; 0-700 m. Widely scattered. Fujian, Hainan, Nanhai Zhudao, SW Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 227)
On grassland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 293)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 293-294)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 293-294)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 293-294)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 38)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 38)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 293-294)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 47)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hills, river banks, open waste places; 0-700 m. Widely scattered.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 115)
Naturalized
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Rivers, Julie (2004) (p. 3)
Possibly Heliotropium procumbens based on voucher by Whistler and other references.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 31)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52117 (US)
Rare
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 47)
Vouchers cited: Procter 4248, Robertson 2735
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 168)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2329 (K)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2013.