Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Helianthus annuus
L., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 10.5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Helianthus lenticularis Douglas

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xiang ri kui

English: annual sunflower, common sunflower, sunflower, wild sunflower

French: grand soleil, tournesol

Hawaiian: nānālā, pua nānālā

Korean: haebaragi

Niuean: matalā

Samoan: mata o le lā, mata o le lā

Spanish: alizeti, girasol

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Coarse, taprooted annual herbs usually 1-3 m tall, branched or unbranched.  Leaves primarily alternate, except the lowermost, ovate to broadly ovate or cordate, 10-40 cm long, 5-25 cm wide, margins toothed to subentire, petioles often as long as or slightly longer than blades.  Heads solitary or several to numerous, 3 (-30 in cultivars) cm in diameter; involucral bracts ovate to ovate-oblong, abruptly contracted above the middle, margins ciliate and hispid or hirsute; ray florets 17-35 per head, rays 2.5-5 cm long; disk corollas red or purple.  Achenes 3.3-7 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 322).

"Annuals, 100-300 cm. Stems erect, usually hispid. Leaves mostly cauline; mostly alternate; petioles 2-20 cm; blades lance-ovate to ovate, 10-40 x 5-40 cm, bases cuneate to subcordate or cordate, margins serrate, abaxial faces usually ± hispid, sometimes gland-dotted . Heads 1-9. Peduncles 2-20 cm. Involucres hemispheric or broader, 15-40(-200+) mm diam. Phyllaries 20-30(-100+), ovate to lance-ovate, 13-25 x (3-)5-8 mm, (margins usually ciliate) apices abruptly narrowed, long-acuminate, abaxial faces usually hirsute to hispid, rarely glabrate or glabrous, usually gland-dotted. Paleae 9-11 mm, 3-toothed (middle teeth long-acuminate, glabrous or hispid). Ray florets (13-)17-30(-100+); laminae 25-50 mm. Disc florets 150+(-1000+); corollas 5-8 mm (throats ± bulbous at bases), lobes usually reddish, sometimes yellow ; anthers brownish to black, appendages yellow or dark (style branches yellow) . Cypselae (3-)4-5(-15) mm, glabrate ; pappi of 2 lanceolate scales 2-3.5 mm plus 0-4 obtuse scales 0.5-1 mm"  (Flora of North America online).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "casual of waste places"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 221).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "North America from Canada south to Mexico and throughout the United States"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 322).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 485, 531, 554)
"Se encuentra en algunos jardines del pueblo de San Juan Bautista, donde cada año es nuevamente sembrada".
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 18)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 18)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 322)
Vouchers cited: Uehara s.n. (BISH), K. Nagata 3351 (HLA)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 13)
Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 99)
Previously recorded but not seen in this survey.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 71)
Rare, probably extirpated, at least periodically. Planted ornamental and sometimes sprouts from imported bird seed mixes.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 563)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 612)
Cultivated here and there for ornamental purposes, but nowhere estalished.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-9)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open areas. Widely cultivated in China.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 283)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 221)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 47)
Cultivated only
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 33)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 26 NOV 2008 and was last updated on 3 DEC 2008.