Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
(D. Don ex Hook. & Arn.) DC., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Alomia spilanthoides D. Don ex Hook. & Arn.; Gymnocoronis attenuata DC.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: luo guan ju

English: Senegal tea, temple plant

Habit:  herb

Description:  "A freshwater or marsh-growing emergent perennial herb which forms rounded bushes or, extending from the banks, mats of tangled stems, reproducing vegetatively and by seed.  Stems:  Pale green, erect at first but becoming prostrate, scrambling and branching at the nodes, 1 to 1.5 m long, 5 to 10 mm diameter at first increasing to 1 to 2 cm with age; internodes hollow, inflated and buoyant.  Leaves dark green; opposite, ovate to lanceolate, 5 to 20 cm long, 2.5 to 5 cm wide, on shortish stalks, margins serrate and slightly wavy.  Flowers:  Florets, whitish, numerous, grouped into terminal heads 1.5 to 2 cm diameter, subtended by a single row of green involucral bracts.  Seed yellow-brown, 5 mm diameter, ribbed, without a crown or pappus.  Root:  Numerous, finely fibrous adventitious roots developing from the nodes"  (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 285-287).

Description from Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  "An emergent plant [that] prefers marshes or pond sides. It spreads by the stems, which easily produce roots"  (Flora of China online). Seed or stem fragments carried by water.  Commonly introduced and sold as an aquarium plant and thus spread by humans.

Propagation:  Seed or stem fragments carried by water.  Commonly introduced and sold as an aquarium plant and thus spread by humans.

Native range:  Tropical South America; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 39-40)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (pp. 39-40)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Recently introduced and now naturalized, in Guangxi and Yunnan
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 185)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Recently introduced and now naturalized

Comments:  A problem species in Australia, New Zealand and India.

Control: 

Physical:  "Rake the plant material from the water, spread it thinly over a suitable surface to dry and then rake into heaps and burn.  Repeat as required"  (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 285-287).  "Dig out small sites (all year round): Dispose of plant material at refuse transfer station, or dry out and burn.

Chemical: "1. Weed wipe (spring-summer): glyphosate (500ml/L + penetrant).  2. Spray (sprig-summer): glyphosate (20ml/L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Additional information:
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Fact sheet from the Bay of Plenty Regional Council, New Zealand.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format).
Weed Management Guide from the Government of Australia. (PDF format).
Photos and additional information at the Environment Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, web site of the Bay of Plenty Regional Council (see thumbnails above).
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.

Additional online information about Gymnocoronis spilanthoides is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Gymnocoronis spilanthoides as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Gymnocoronis spilanthoides may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: Candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. 208 pp.

Owen, S. J. 1997. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Working draft. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Parsons, W. T./Cuthbertson, E. G. 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne/Sydney. 692 pp.

Timmins, S. M./Mackenzie, I. W. 1995. Weeds in New Zealand protected natural areas database. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation, , Technical Series No. 8. 287 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2013.