Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Gmelina elliptica
J.E.Sm., Verbenaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Badhara-bush

Palauan: a kulb ne par reth, kalngebard ra belau

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Small tree, with decussately arranged spines; young stems densely covered with hairs; leaves opposite or subopposite, ± decussate, petiolate, mostly broadly elliptic or broadly ovate; apex rounded, slightly mucronate, and ± retuse; base obtuse or acute, shortly attenuate; margin entire; upper leaf surface glabrescent; lower leaf surface covered with curved hairs; base of blade on lower surface with shiny green glands; inflorescence a raceme-like arrangement of cymes; peduncle densely covered with hairs; flowers opening 1 or 2 at a time; calyx cup-like, with appressed hairs and green button-like glands outside; 4 very short calyx lobes; corolla yellow, bilabiate, base narrowly cylindrical, greatly inflated distally, with appressed hairs outside; outer lip with single, largest lobe, inner lip 3-lobed; stamens 4, adnate to narrow part of corolla lobe, 2 upper stamens larger and 2 lower stamens smaller, all fertile; 2 uppers filaments curved, with glands; all anthers with 2 locules forming a U-shape; ovary ± globose, mostly shiny, glabrous, but with mostly distal appressed hairs; style filiform, 2 arms distally, 1 with very small terminal stigma, the second very small, aborted." (Flora of Suranaree University of Technology Campus, Thailand)

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern and southeast Asia, Mauritius and Palau; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 151)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2620 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 493168)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica J.E.Sm.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Line Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 18, 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Voucher: Lorence 9894 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438288)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica J.E.Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649312)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica J.E.Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 649313)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica J.E.Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 697862)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica J.E.Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1997) (voucher ID: BISH 697863)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica J.E.Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2005) (voucher ID: BNM 142)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1450)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 187)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 428375)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica J.E.Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 567993)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica J.E.Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 835)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 828)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 827)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina elliptica Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 18, 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 399)
Common in thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 45)
Endangered
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Naturalized in Australia (Queensland), Jamaica and Zaire (GRIN).

This shrubby, thorny tree could be a problem if introduced to islands where it is not native.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2017.