Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Gmelina asiatica
L., Verbenaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia)).
High risk, score 13 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ya zhou shi zi

English: Asiatic beechberry, oval-leafed gmelina

Palauan: kalngebang

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A large straggling or scrambling deciduous bush or shrub, rather hardy, to about 3 m tall, or rarely a semi-evergreen tree to 8 m tall, sometimes prostrate, usually spiny, sometimes unarmed, much-branched, with basitonic branching, very variable in size and habit; bark yellowish- or brownish-white, thin, smooth; wood hard, grey; branchlets horizontal, rigid, often compressed, puberulous or even villosulous when young; twigs frequently much abbreviated and apically spinose, these axillary spines sometimes leaf-bearing; leaves small; petioles 0.5-3 cm long, slender; leaf-blades membranous or chartaceous, varying from oval or ovate to elliptic, obovate, subrhomboid, or triangular in outline, very variable, mostly 1-9.5 (rarely to 13) cm long, 1.5-6 cm wide, entire or 3-5 lobed when young and on turions, basally mostly acute to cuneate, sometimes rounded, apically acute or obtuse, glabrous on both surfaces when mature, often more or less pubescent when young, dark and shiny above, pale green, glaucescent, and minutely white-glanduliferous beneath, the glands round; inflorescences axillary and terminal, nodding or pendulous, appressed-tomentose; bracts usually rather small, linear or lanceolate, cuspidate, 2-3 times as long as the calyx, caducous; flowers large, borne in short cymules in mostly terminal fulvous-tomentose racemiform panicles 2.5-5 cm long, falling after dawn or as soon as picked in daylight hours; pedicels pubescent; calyx about 4 mm long, somewhat contracted apically, externally pubescent-tomentose, glanduliferous, the rim very shortly 4-toothed, the teeth acute, the glands many, large, bare, antrorse, flattened, discoid; corolla large, yellow or bright sulphur-yellow, 4-5 cm long, bilabiate, externally finely pubescent or reddish-tomentose, internally glabrous, the tube narrow and curvate below, apically ampliate into a broad ventricose throat, the limb 4-lobed, the lobes ovate, subacute, the lowest largest; fertile stamens 2; staminodes 2; drupes ovoid or obovoid-pyriform, yellow when ripe, with a watery or soapy exudate, 1.8-2.8 cm long, glabrous, 1- or 2-celled and -seeded" (Dassanayake, 1983; pp. 394-397).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed. May be dispersed by fruit-eating birds.

Native range:  "A widely distributed and highly variable species found from India, Ceylon, and Bangladesh, through Burma and Thailand to Malaya and Indo-China, east to Indonesia, north to southern China, and west to Réunion and Mauritius"  (Dassanayake, 1983; pp. 394-397). Southern and southeastern Asia; widely cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1970) (voucher ID: PTBG 22444)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina asiatica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 652961)
Taxon name on voucher: Gmelina asiatica L.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mixed forests; 400-800 m. Guangdong, S. Guangxi.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 45)
Common
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 5 MAY 2013.