Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Garcinia xanthochymus
Hook., Clusiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Garcinia tinctoria (DC.) W. Wight, orth. var.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da ye teng huang

English: Cochin-goraka, eggtree, false mangosteen, gambogetree, garcinia, Mysore gamboge, sour mangosteen

French: gamboge des teinturiers, mangoustan amer

Malayan: asam kandis

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees 8-10 m tall, 15-45 cm in diameter. Bark gray-brown. Branches numerous, slender, decussate, horizontal but usually ± distally pendulous, twigs distinctly angled. Petiole robust, V-shaped and somewhat clasping at base, 1.5-2.5 cm, angled and transversely wrinkled when dry, those of terminal 1 or 2 pairs on branchlet usually rose-colored; leaf blade shiny, elliptic or oblong to oblong-lanceolate, (14-) 20-34 x (4-) 6-12 cm, thickly leathery, midvein robust, raised on both surfaces; veins dense, to 35-40 pairs, near margin arching and anastomosing; tertiary veins and veinlets conspicuous, base ± broadly cuneate, margin involute, apex acute to obtuse, rarely acuminate. Corymbose cyme (2-) 5-10 (-14)-flowered, arising from leafless axils; peduncle 6-12 mm. Pedicels 1.8-3 cm. Flowers 5-merous, only female observed. Sepals and petals 3 large and 2 small, apparently ciliate. Staminode fascicles 5, ca. 3 mm, complanate, united below, upper parts free, each fascicle with 2-5 staminodes; fasciclodes 5, square, ca. 1 mm, strongly rugose. Ovary globose, usually 5-loculed; style short, ca. 1 mm; stigma peltate, apex concave, (3-) 5-cleft. Mature berry yellow, globose or ovoid, sometimes oblique, 3-5 cm in diameter, smooth or sometimes with orbicular lenticels, apiculate, sepals and staminal bundles usually persistent. Seeds 1-4, oblong or ovoid; testa brown, smooth"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In China (native), "dense humid forests of valleys or on hills; (100-) 600-1000 (-1400) m"  (Flora of China online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  India to China and Southeast Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 346-347)
Voucher cited: DA L.11589
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10643 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2829 (PAP)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 657809)
Taxon name on voucher: Garcinia xanthochymus
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 19380)
Taxon name on voucher: Garcinia xanthochymus
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 27974)
Taxon name on voucher: Garcinia xanthochymus
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 47096)
Taxon name on voucher: Garcinia xanthochymus
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Dense humid forests of valleys or on hills; (100-) 600-1000 (-1400) m. Guangdong (cultivated), SW Guangxi, S, SW, and W Yunnan.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 44)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 3 SEP 2012 and was last updated on 20 SEP 2012.