Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Fuchsia magellanica
Lam., Onagraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Common name(s): [more details]

English: earring flower, fuchsia, hardy fuchsia

French: fuchsia de magellan, ti zanneau

Hawaiian: kulapepeiao

Spanish: chilca, chilco, palo blanco

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Small shrubs;  stems long, arcuate, 1-2.5 (-4) m long.  Leaves in whorls of 3-4 per node or sometimes opposite, ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-6 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, margins serrate, petioles 0.5-1 cm long.  Flowers perfect, axillary and pendent, peduncles 3-4.5 cm long; floral tube magenta, 10-13 mm long; sepals magenta, 20-25 mm long; petals dark purple, convolute after anthesis, 10-13 mm long; stamens exserted; filaments 25-30 mm long.  Berries ellipsoid, 10-15 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 996-997).

Habitat/ecology:  Ornamental plant; many cultivated fuchsias are hybrids of Fuchsia magellanica.  "Forest margins, scrub, woodland, riparian habitats.  A variable shrub with a number of varieties and cultivars.  It often forms dense thickets and scrambles over other shrubs and small trees.  Extensive stands develop in disturbed sites, impeding the growth and regeneration of native trees and shrubs"  (Weber, 2003; p. 176).

"Dense infestations in the La Reunion islands occur along paths and tracks, where the plant may form dense tangled thickets which shade out native understorey plants and alter the structure of the vegetation" (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; p. 161).  Naturalized in mesic to wet forests up to 5000 ft. elevation in Hawai‘i.  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  The plant grows in water or it has its roots within a permanent water course, this corresponds to marshes, bogs, water courses, lake and river shores; humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month).  Some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light; in shadow, steep slopes facing south or a vegetation cover which filters 40-80% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "Seeds are dispersed by birds and water"  (Weber, 2003; p. 176).

Native range:  Argentina and Chile; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 554)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 996-997)
Voucher cited: Rock 13045 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 996-997)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 996-997)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 144)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 161)
South Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"A garden escape locally naturalised in cool moist districts in south-eastern South Australia, southern Victoria and Tasmania."
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 905)
"Scrub, plantations, roadsides, forest margins".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 161)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Kueffer, C./Lavergne, C. (2004) (p. 4)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young trees.

Chemical:  Cut plants and treat regrowth with a herbicide; larger plants can be cut and the stumps treated with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 176).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 MAY 2013.