Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Frangula californica
(Eschsch.) A. Gray, Rhamnaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Rhamnus californica Eschsch.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: buckthorn, California buckthorn, California coffeeberry

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrub less than 5 m.  Stem: bark bright gray or brown; twigs glabrous to finely hairy; terminal bud not covered with scales.  Leaves evergreen; petiole 3-10 mm; blade 20-80 mm, ovate to elliptic, thick, base acute to rounded, tip acute, rounded, or truncate, margin serrate to entire, sometimes rolled under, both surfaces more or less glabrous.  Inflorescence 5-60-flowered, pedicels less than 20 mm.  Flower bisexual; hypanthium 1-2 mm; sepals 5, petals 5; style included.  Fruit 10-15 mm, black"  (Hickman, 1993).

Habitat/ecology:  In California (US), coastal-sage scrub, chaparral, woodlands, forests at elevations less than 2300 m (Hickman, 1993).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Western United States (Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon) and Baja Norte, Mexico; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 81758)
Taxon name on voucher: Rhamnus californica var. californica
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Baja Norte
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 19 JUN 2009 and was last updated on 4 MAY 2013.