Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Fragaria chiloensis
(L.) Duchesne, Rosaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Other Latin names:  Fragaria chiloensis subsp. sandwicensis; Fragaria sandwicensis Decne.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: beach strawberry, Chilean strawberry, Chiloe strawberry

French: chilère, fraisier du Chili

Hawaiian: ōhelo papa

Spanish: fresa chilena, frutilla, frutilla silvestre

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs from stout scaly rhizomes usually 1-4 cm long, also producing long stolons. Leaves somewhat coriaceous, leaflets 2.1-5 (-6) cm long, 1.2-3.5 cm wide, upper surface with conspicuously impressed veins, glabrous or with a few scattered long hairs, lower surface densely silky long-strigose, margins coarsely serrate, sometimes only in upper 2/3, lateral petiolules 0.2-1 (-2.5) cm long, petioles (3-) 12-16 (-21) cm long, densely long-strigose, stipules brownish, 1-1.6 cm long.  Flowers 1 to several, scapes usually ca. 1/2 as long as petioles at anthesis, apparently elongating after anthesis to nearly as long as petioles, pedicels usually 20-50 mm long; epicalyx lobes narrowly lanceolate, (3-) 5-6 mm long, densely silky long-strigose; sepals lanceolate, ca. 7-8 mm long, enlarging to 9-10 mm long in fruit, densely silky long-strigose; petals white, broadly obovate, 8-11 mm long.  Fruit red, broadly conical, ca. 1-1.5 cm long, hirsutulous, achenes ca. 1.5 mm long, slightly embedded in shallow pits of the receptacle"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1103).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i (native), "occurring in dry, disturbed areas, wet forest, and subalpine shrubland, 1,160-3,070 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1103).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m. Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month). Some shadow. some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light; in shadow, steep slopes facing south or a vegetation cover which filters 40-80% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Rhizomes, stolons, seed (spread by frugivorous birds).

Native range:  "Pacific coast of North America from Alaska to California, disjunct in South America from Chile to Argentina and the Juan Fernández and Hawaiian islands"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1103).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1103)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island native
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1103)
East Maui
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 8 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 7 APR 2011.