Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Fimbristylis littoralis
Gaudich., Cyperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Fimbristylis miliacea auct.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shui shi cao

English: fimbry, grass-like fimbristylis, lesser fimbristylis

Filipino: ubod-ubod

Japanese: hideriké

Palauan: kerngimes kederang

Pohnpeian: lingkerekenwel

Spanish: barba de fraile, barba de indio

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "Annual or occasionally apparently biennial, densely tufted, without rhizome; culms 10-50 cm tall, 1-5 mm broad below, flattened-4-sided with 2 sharp edges, smooth, glabrous, leaved at base; few upper leaves bladed, the lower leaves cataphylloid; blades laterally compressed, shorter than to surpassing culm, gradually narrowed to a long, acuminate apex, 1-4 mm broad at base, light green, soft; sheaths laterally flattened, greenish or the lower ones pale or tinged with rusty- or dusky-brown, obliquely truncate at orifice with membranous margins; corymbs ample, decompound, open, subdense to subloose with numerous spikelets, 3-8 cm long and broad; bracts 2-4, setaceous, 1/2 to 1/3 the length of rays, the dilated base with brown, membranous margins; rays 3-7, unequal, patent, 1-5 cm long, scabrid; spikelets solitary, ovoid-globular to globular, 1.5-5 mm long, 1.5-3 mm broad, rounded at both ends, rusty-brown, densely many-flowered; glumes patent, broadly ovate, 1-1.2 mm long, obtuse at apex, membranous, reddish brown, broadly white-hyaline on margins, the 3-nerved keel ending below apex; achenes broadly obovate, trigonous, 0.75-1 mm long, cream-yellow, cancellate with rows of fine, transversely oblong cells, usually sparsely verruculose; style slender, not fimbriate, about 0.7 mm long; stigmas 3, as long as style; anthers 0.6-0.7 mm long" (Smith, 1979; pp. 242-243).

Illustration by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) courtesy Ecoport.

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "presumably a naturalized adventive, locally abundant and often forming extensive stands in open swampy land or in standing water in drains.  It is frequent in rice fields, swampy cultivated areas, and wet pastures"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 242-243).  "Uncommon in wet places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 42).

Propagation:  Seed.  "[It] is eaten by cattle, the seeds passing through their digestive tracts mostly undigested and germinating near droppings"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 277).

Native range:  "Tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, extending in eastern Asia to north temperate areas of Japan and China" (Smith, 1979; pp. 242-243). Fosberg et al. (1987; p. 73) list as native in Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 72-73)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 72-73)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 44896)
Taxon name on voucher: Fimbristylis littoralis
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 72-73)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 72-73)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 123)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2413 (US), Kanehira 678 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 43)
Vouchers cited: S. F. Glassman 2413 (BISH), R. Kanehira 678 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 9431 (PTBG), L. Stemmermann 2939 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 904 (PTBG), M. Takamatsu 1024 (PTBG), N.S. Tangalin 1159 (PTBG), N.S. Tangalin 1263 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1936) (voucher ID: PTBG 45148)
Taxon name on voucher: Fimbristylis littoralis
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 72-73)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 242-243)
Vouchers cited: DA 1582, Greenwood 584
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 242-243)
Vouchers cited: DA 1492, Smith 9408, DA 9181 (McKee 2744A), DA 2848, DA 7879, DA 8398, DA 7635, Greenwood 329, DA 10572, DA 5939
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 317)
as Fimbristylis miliacea Vahl, vouchers cited: Florence 2641, BRY 26314
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Fimbristylis miliacea Vahl, vouchers cited: J. Florence 2641 (PAP), J. Florence 2253 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: Stone 4477 (GUAM), Moore 143, Rodin 765
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 72-73)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2000) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: C. Imada 99-29 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Strong, Mark T./Wagner, Warren L. (1997) (pp. 45-46)
Vouchers cited: Herbst 5952 (Bish, US), Flynn 1237 (BISH, PTBG, US), Flynn & Lorence 2183 (BISH, PTBG, US), Wagner & Lorence 5998 (BISH, US), Texeira s.n. (US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 11)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110117 (BISH, PTBG)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 72-73)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1996) (voucher ID: BNM 26565)
Taxon name on voucher: Fimbristylis littoralis Gaud.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 72-73)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 49746)
Taxon name on voucher: Fimbristylis littoralis
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 124)
In open wet places; a characteristic rice-paddy weed.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 42)
Not common.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 42)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Field margins, open slopes, muddy places near water, grasslands, paddy fields, paddy field margins; 100-2000 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, SE Qinghai, S Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 314)
As Fimbristylis miliacea (L.)Vahl. In paddy fields and other wet places.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 242-243)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 43)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Field margins, open slopes, muddy places near water, grasslands, paddy fields, paddy field margins; 100-2000 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 66, 77)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Recently established in Hawai‘i (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1899).

Control: 

Biological:  Waterhouse (1994, pp. 110-111) lists natural enemies of the species.


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This page was created on 1 SEP 2002 and was last updated on 1 JUL 2008.