Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ficus religiosa
L., Moraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: pu ti shu

English: bo tree, peepul tree, sacred fig

French: arbre de Dieu, figuier de pagodes

Hindi: bodh tree, pipal tree

Spanish: higuera de agua

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees, 15-25 m tall, d.b.h. 30-50 cm, epiphytic when young, crown wide when mature. Bark gray, smooth or longitudinally ± fissured. Branchlets grayish brown, sparsely pubescent when young. Stipules ovate, small, apex acute. Petiole slender, as long as or longer than leaf blade, articulate; leaf blade triangular-ovate, 9-17 x 8-12 cm, leathery, abaxially green, adaxially dark green and shiny, base broadly cuneate to ± cordate, margin entire or undulate, apex acute to caudate with a 2-5 cm cauda; basal lateral veins 2, secondary veins 5-7 on each side of midvein. Figs axillary on leafy branchlets, paired or solitary, red when mature, globose to depressed globose, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, smooth; peduncle 4-9 mm; involucral bracts ovate. Male, gall, and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: few, near apical pore, sessile; calyx 2- or 3-lobed, margin revolute; stamen 1; filament short. Gall flowers: pedicellate; calyx 3- or 4-lobed; ovary globose, smooth; style short; stigma enlarged, 2-lobed. Female flowers: sessile; calyx 4-lobed, broadly lanceolate; ovary globose, smooth; style thin; stigma narrow"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Pakistan to Vietnam, cultivated elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 55)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: DA 13271
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 26)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED129 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 531687)
Taxon name on voucher: Ficus religiosa L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2008) (pp. 7-8)
Voucher cited: A. Lau & D. Frohlich 2007101901 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 102)
Voucher cited: MacKee 14638
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 63)
Cultivated.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 41)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Miami-Dade County Dept. of Planning and Zoning, 2010).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 25 OCT 2010 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.