Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Euphorbia peplus
L., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: nan ou da ji

English: petty spurge, radium plant

French: euphorbe des jardins, herbe de lait

Spanish: mariquita, pichoa, pichoga, tomagallos

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herbs; stems 1.5-3.5 dm long, glabrous.  Leaves bright green, caducous below, alternate below, becoming opposite or ternate above, membranous, floral leaves smaller, often congested and reflexed, spatulate, 1-1.4 cm long, 0.8-1.2 cm wide, margins entire, apex rounded, base acute or cuneate, petioles 0-0.6 cm long, stipules absent.  Cyathia solitary in the forks of the upper branches, peduncles 0.6-1 mm long; involucre pale green, ca. 1 mm high, glabrous, glands 4, green, crescent-shaped, ca. 0.5 mm long, with slender or filiform horns 0.5-0.7 mm long.  Capsules broadly ovoid, shallowly 3-lobed, 1.8-2 mm long, 2-2.2 mm in diameter.  Seeds gray, ovoid-oblong, weakly 6-angled, ca. 1.5 mm long, ca. 0.8 mm wide, coarsely pitted and minutely white tuberculate, carunculate"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 619-620).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in open or often shaded, disturbed sites, especially pastures, 300-2,300 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 619-620).  In Fiji, "sparingly naturalized (or perhaps evanescent) at an elevation of about 750 m" (Smith, 1981; pp. 570-571).  "Uncommon in disturbed areas of Tongatapu" (Whistler, 1988; p. 18).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, Asia and northern Africa; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 206)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"A common weed of gardens and disturbed ground". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 2670 (NSW), J. Pickard in A.N. Rodd 1319 (NSW), M.M.J. van Balgooy 1085 (NSW), J. Pickard 2767 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"A common weed of gardens and disturbed ground". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1113 (K), P.S. Green 1442 (A)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 220)
Common around the colony.
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 570-571)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 1171
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 62-63)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 619-620)
Voucher cited: Rémy 599 (P)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: D. Lorence et al. 5796 (PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010522-4 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010522-4 (BISH). Uncommon. Found sparingly near quarters.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 619-620)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 137)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: MacKee 40705
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Sarasin 492 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 51)
Vouchers cited: Delacour s.n., MacKee 40705
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: MacKee 5006
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 630)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 106)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 62-63)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & B. Christian 11178
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & S. Waldren 11048 (PAP)
Adventice
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: Ilolahia 55, Soakai 745, Soakai 987
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 245)
Taxon name on voucher: Euphorbia peplus
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 619-620)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-8)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Weed of disturbed areas, roadsides, gardens, grasslands. Fujian (Fuzhou, Xiamen), Guangxi (Nanning), Hong Kong, Yunnan (Kunming)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 157)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 630)
"Waste places, gardens, riverbeds, coastal sites, often in shingle or in stony ground".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Weed of disturbed areas, roadsides, gardens, grasslands.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 157)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 121)


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This page was created on 31 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 29 APR 2013.