Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Euphorbia maculata
L., Euphorbiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small; Euphorbia supina Raf.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ban di jin

English: large spurge, milk-purslane, spotted sandmat, spotted spurge

Japanese: ko-nishiki-so

Spanish: lechosilla

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Low annual herbs; stems usually prostrate or decumbent, 0.1-0.2 m long, shaggy villous or sometimes glabrate.  Leaves elliptic-ovate or oblong-ovate to linear-oblong, 4-17 mm long, 2-5 mm wide, sparsely villous, upper surface often glabrate, margins serrulate, apex various, base truncate, petioles 1-1.5 mm long, stipules deltate, 1-1.5 mm long, usually 2-3-parted, villous.  Cyathia solitary at nodes of short, congested, leafy, lateral shoots; involucre ca. 0.8  mm high, villous, glands 4, oblong, minute, appendages short, white, margins irregularly crenate; staminate flowers 2-5 per cyathium.  Capsules ovoid, 3-angled, 1.2-1.4 mm long, uniformly strigose.  Seeds pale brown with a white coat, oblong, 4-angled, ca. 1 mm long, the faces with nearly regular, low, transverse ridges that sometimes slightly include the angles"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 610-611).

Habitat/ecology:  On Sand Island, Midway Atoll "found in lawns and hard packed areas"  (Starr, Starr & Loope, 2008; p. A-79).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Canada and United States; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Introduced - Recent, Naturalised; Land, lowlands.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 610-611)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010522-11 (BISH). Occasional to common near quarters, on runway, and elsewhere.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 610-611)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Tukeuchi 6392 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Grasslands, roadsides, naturalized. Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Grasslands, roadsides, naturalized.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 28 JAN 2010 and was last updated on 29 APR 2013.