Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Eugenia brasiliensis
Lam., Myrtaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Eugenia dombeyi (Spreng.) Skeels; Myrtus dombeyi Spreng.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Brazilian cherry, Brazilian plum, grumichama, Spanish cherry

French: cerieier du Japon, cerise du Brésil, jambosier du Brésil, pruneau

Portuguese: grumixameira

Habit:  tree

Description:  "The highly ornamental tree is slender, erect, usually to 25 or 35 ft (7.5-10.5 m) high, short-trunked and heavily foliaged with opposite, oblong-oval leaves 3 1/2 to 5 in (9-16 cm) long, 2 3/8 in (5-6 cm) wide, with recurved margin; glossy, thick, leathery, and minutely pitted on both surfaces. They persist for 2 years. New shoots are rosy. The flowers, borne singly in the leaf axils, are 1 in (2.5 cm) wide; have 4 green sepals and 4 white petals, and about 100 white stamens with pale-yellow anthers. The long-stalked fruit is oblate, 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) wide; turns from green to bright-red and finally dark-purple to nearly black as it ripens, and bears the persistent, purple- or red-tinted sepals, to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) long, at its apex. The skin is thin, firm and exudes dark-red juice. The red or white pulp is juicy and tastes much like a true subacid or sweet cherry except for a touch of aromatic resin. There may be 1 more or less round, or 2 to 3 hemispherical, hard, light-tan or greenish-gray seeds to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide and half as thick" (Morton, 1987).

"Slender tree 25-35 feet tall.  Leaf blades oblong-ovate, 3.5-5 inches long, 1-2.25 inches wide, leathery, glossy, both sides minutely pitted, margins recurved.  Inflorescence in terminal clusters on branches, or flowers solitary, pedicels 1.25-2 inches long.  Flower sepals 4, green; petals 4, white; stamens to 100, anthers pale yellow.  Fruit flattened-globose, 0.5-0.75 inches in diameter, red turning dark purple-black when ripe, flesh juicy, apex capped by persistent sepals.  Seeds 1-3, to 0.5 inches wide, pale tan to greenish gray"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 423).

Habitat/ecology:  The grumichama is subtropical, surviving temperatures of 26 F (-3.33 C) in Brazil. It is better suited to Palm Beach than to southern Florida. In Hawaii, the tree fruits best from sea-level to an altitude of no more than 300 ft (90 m). The grumichama does better on acid sand in Central Florida than it does on limestone in the south. It is reported to prefer deep, fertile, sandy loam. Sturrock says it grows well in rich clay in Cuba but is adversely affected by the long, dry season" (Morton, 1987).

Propagation:  Seed (Morton, 1987).

Native range:  Southern coastal Brazil (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 423).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 373)
Vouchers cited: DA 1544, DA 5528
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 11506 (PAP)
Probablement le seul arbre planté à Tahiti.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED111 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (year unknown)
"Lining the side of the Hana Highway at Ulumalu in Haiku, and was also in nearby gulches."
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011) (p. 29)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 090616-01 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 59801)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia brasiliensis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2013) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: T. Marsh 20120405 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 595956)
Taxon name on voucher: Eugenia dombeyi
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 105)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 21179, Suprin 2313, Bégaud in MacKee 44146
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 40)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"

Comments:  Cultivated and naturalized in La Réunion per Christophe Lavergne, pers. com.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 4 MAR 2006 and was last updated on 27 DEC 2012.