Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eschscholzia californica
Cham., Papaveraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hua ling cao

English: California goldenpoppy, California poppy

French: eschscholtzie de Californie, globe du soleil, pavot de Californie

Spanish: amapola de California, dedal de oro

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Glaucous, subglabrous annual or perennial herbs; stems erect or ascending, sprawling with age, 2-6 dm long, branched.  Leaves ca. 3-12 cm long, the lobes linear-elliptic, 1-3 mm wide.  Peduncles 3-15 cm long; receptacle with 2 rings, outer one spreading, 2-4 mm wide, inner one erect and hyaline; calyptra 1-4 cm long; petals dark orange to yellow, broadly obovate, 2-6 cm long.  Capsules cylindrical, tapering to apex, 3-8 (-10) cm long.  Seeds grayish brown, 1.2-1.5 mm long, reticulate"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1006-1007).

"Plants perennial or annual, caulescent, erect or spreading, 5-60 cm, glabrous, sometimes glaucous; taproot heavy in perennial forms. Leaves basal and cauline; blade with ultimate lobes obtuse or acute. Inflorescences cymose or 1-flowered; buds erect. Flowers: receptacle obconic, cup with spreading free rim; calyx acute to acuminate, glabrous, sometimes glaucous; petals yellow to orange, usually with orange spot at base, 20-60 mm. Capsules 3-9 cm. Seeds brown to black, spheric to ellipsoid, 1.5-1.8 mm, reticulate" (Flora of North America).

Description from Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated, now naturalized and currently spreading...at 2,270 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1007).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Western North America (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1007).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 482, 528-529, 553)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/153)1433. "En RC, aparece en el pueblo de San Juan Bautista cada año por donde quiere, por aqui y por allá".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1006-1007)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1006-1007)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 48375 (US)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: MacKee 40076
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 85)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 85)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Widely introduced as a courtyard ornamental
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Baja Norte, Chihuahua, Sonora
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 929)
"Dry stony sites, especially on roadsides and dry riverbeds".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, Utah

Control: 

Physical:  "Pull out small patches (spring-summer).  Where appropriate plant local native plants to shade out seedlings"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 3 MAR 2007 and was last updated on 11 DEC 2010.