Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Escallonia rubra var. macrantha
(Hook. & Arn.) Reiche, Escalloniaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Stereoxylon rubrum Ruiz & Pav.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: redclaws

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "A 4-10 foot tall shrub with hairy, gladular shoots and inflorescence axes; broadly elliptic to obovate leaves 1-3 inches long and up to 1.75 inches wide, the margins serrate, the upper side glossy dark green, the underside gland-dotted; and racemes or panicles of bright rose red flowers 0.63 inches in diameter"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 350).

"Densely branched shrub up to 2-(4) m high; twigs with stalked glands, and densely clothed in short, simple erect hairs, striate, viscid; older branches with grey, peeling bark. Leaves on younger branches but persisting on older wood, elliptic to broadly elliptic or broadly obovate, 2.5-9 x 1.5-4.5 cm, mostly acute, rarely some obtuse, serrate, tapering to short petiole, glabrous and shining above, aromatic; lower surface somewhat dull, pale green, with gland dots and conspicuous veins. Inflorescences terminal, small, loose, paniculate. Calyx densely glandular, usually also with simple hairs; lobes c. 3 mm long, triangular, glandular. Corolla red or pink, 12-18 mm in diameter; petals erect, forming a tube c. 6-10 mm long; limbs 3-5 mm long, spreading. Ovary disc narrowly conic; style 7-10 mm long. Capsule obovoid, 3-5 mm long"  (Healy & Edgar, 1980; p. 622).

Habitat/ecology:  "In the wild, E. rubra is a seacoast species quite tolerant of windshear and salt spray.  Ideal conditions include full sun and a porous, well-drained, neutral to acidic soil that is kept continually moist"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 350).  In New Zealand, "rocky cliffs, banks, forest margins, wasteland, generally near the sea"  (Healy & Edgar, 1980; p. 622).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Chile; cultivated elsewhere (GRIN). Southern Brazil and Uruguay  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 350).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED64 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 641727)
Taxon name on voucher: Escallonia rubra var. macrantha (Hook. & Arn.) Reiche
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 350)
"Thrive only at elevations above 2,500 feet".
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1995) (voucher ID: BISH 639505)
Taxon name on voucher: Escallonia rubra var. macrantha (Hook. & Arn.) Reiche
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 622)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 8 DEC 2009 and was last updated on 28 APR 2013.