Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Erythrina subumbrans
(Hassk.) Merr., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Erythrina lithosperma Miq.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: chi guo ci tong

English: December tree

Malayan: dadap, dadap, dadap

Maori (Cook Islands): ngatae, taetapu

Samoan: gatae pālagi, gatae pālagi

Habit:  tree

Description: 

Genus:  "Trees or shrubs, rarely perennial herbs, the trunk and branches often aculeate, the stipules usually small, persistent or deciduous; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, the stipels glandular, the leaflet blades pinnate-nerved, the lateral ones usually asymmetrical and smaller than terminal one; inflorescences terminal or axillary, pseudoracemose, often pyramidal and many-flowered, the showy flowers usually in fascicles of 2-5, sometimes single, the bracts and bracteoles deciduous; calyx with a rounded or turbinate hypanthium, sometimes ruptured by the emergent corolla and androecium, the limb entire, erose, variously lobed, or spathaceous, sometimes asymmetrical; petals 5, the standard the largest, erect or spreading, clawed or not, lacking appendages, the wings longer or shorter than keel, short-clawed, the keel petals free or connate, short-clawed; stamens 10, the filaments of 9 connate above middle, alternately longer and shorter, the vexillary filament free or connate to filament tube proximally, the anthers uniform, dorsifixed; ovary stipitate, usually linear or fusiform, pubescent, the ovules (2-) numerous, the style long, incurved, the stigma small, terminal; fruit stipitate, usually coriaceous or subligneous and linear-oblong, often falcate, constricted or sinuate between seeds, dehiscent (sometimes scarcely so), septate by endocarp or not, the seeds 1-14, ellipsoid to asymmetrically subglobose."  (Smith, 1985).

Species: "Trees, 12-15 m tall. Trunk up to 60 cm d.b.h., with robust prickles. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules ovate, deciduous; petiole 10-12 cm, without prickles; petiolules ca. 7 mm; leaflets ovate-triangular, 10-15 cm x 7-10 mm, membranous, both surfaces glabrous, lateral veins 7 on each side, obviously convex abaxially, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex acuminate. Raceme 7-10 cm. Flowers ca. 4 cm. Calyx campanulate, 2-lobed, silky hairy. Standard scarlet, elliptic, 5-6 cm, apex obtuse, shortly clawed; wings obovate; keels subequal to wings. Ovary glabrous. Legume ca. 15 x 2.5 cm, with seeds restricted to apical part, indehiscent. Seeds 1-3, black"  (Flora of China online).

"A tree up to 10 m or more in height...  The inflorescences, up to 22 cm in length, bear flowers with red standards 3.5-4 x 2-3 cm; the wings and keel petals are greenish to pale red; and the fruits are 10-14 cm long and 2-2.5 cm broad, with 1-5 seeds."  (Smith, 1985; p. 204).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "cultivated near sea level or slightly higher and sparingly naturalized along roadsides"  (Smith, 1985; p. 204).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Southeastern Asia to Malesia (presumably eastward to the Philippines, Moluccas, and Timor), cultivated and sometimes naturalized elsewhere.  The species is commonly used as a shade for cocoa and coffee and has become occasionally naturalized."  (Smith, 1985; p. 204).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 204)
Vouchers cited: DA 9557, DA 17401
Sparingly naturalized.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 154)
Voucher cited: CHR 150508
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 305)
In thickets, secondary forests, etc., at low and medium altitudes; occasionally palnted.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Forests; 300-600 m. Yunnan".
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Timor-Leste
Timor-Leste
East Timor Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)


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This page was created on 10 FEB 2005 and was last updated on 15 DEC 2010.