Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Erodium cicutarium
(L.) L'Hr. ex Aiton, Geraniaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Geranium cicutarium L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: qin ye mang niu er miao

English: alfilaria, California filaree, common crowfoot, common erodium, common heron's-bill, common stork's-bill, cutleaf filaree, filaree, heron's-bill, pin clover, red-stem filaree, red-stem stork's-bill, stork's-bill

Spanish: alfilerillo, tachuela

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual, at first stemless, later usually with 1 or more hairy stems; plant extremely variable in size, from prostrate to c. 50 cm high and c. 75 cm wide, not musk-scented. Leaves to c. 15 cm long, pinnate, hairy, sometimes densely so, sometimes glandular; petiole longer in rosette and lower cauline leaves. Leaflets sessile, ovate, deeply and finely pinnately dissected with linear to lanceolate lobes, often densely covered in white hairs. Stipules triangular, often broad, membranous, ciliate, silvery; midrib green, forming an acute or mucronate apex. Umbels (2)-5-12-flowered; bracts broad-ovate, membranous, with green keeled midrib forming an acute to short-acuminate apex. Peduncles densely covered in glandular hairs, often > upper cauline leaves; pedicels ± = calyx at anthesis. Sepals (2.5)-3-5 mm long at anthesis, lanceolate, hirsute or glandular, mucronate. Petals 4-6 mm long, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, usually pink or mauve-pink, rarely white; claw short, hairy. Stamens c. 3 mm long; filaments widened at base, without lateral teeth, usually pinkish; anthers dark purple. Staminodes narrow-lanceolate. Fruit beak 3-3.5 cm long, with appressed hairs. Mericarps densely hirsute with hairs of differing lengths; apical pits eglandular, with a prominent shallow glabrous furrow beneath"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 724)

"Annual herbs; stems decumbent, slender, 1-5 dm long, strigillose and glandular pubescent.  Leaves pinnately compound, 3-10 cm long, leaflets pinnatifid, stipules lanceolate.  Peduncles 50-150 mm long, pedicels 8-18 mm long; sepals 2-6 mm long, apex mucronate, with 1-2 white bristles; petals rose lavender, 5-7 mm long; stylar column 2-5 cm long.  Carpel bodies 4-5 mm long, stiffly pubescent, the apical portion glabrous.  Seed dull brown, ellipsoid, 2-3 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 727).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and woodland, dry open forests, shrubland, disturbed sites.  A native of warm, dry and ruderal places whose establishment is facilitated by disturbances.  Plants are extremely variable in size and shape.  Once established, it forms dense stands that eliminate native vegetation and successfully compete with native grasses and forbs"  (Weber, 2003; p. 160).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in relatively dry, disturbed sites, 0-3,100 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 728).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter; dry, arid areas, with long drought periods of 6-10 months, precipitations of 100 mm-300 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Northern Africa, Europe, Asia; exact native range obscure; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 220)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 220)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 220)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Morro El Verdugo introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Morro Juanango introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 727-728)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 727-728)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 727-728)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 727-728)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 727-728)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 727-728)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Narturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Narturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Narturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Meadows, flood plains, gravel areas, disturbed areas; 700-2200 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liao-ning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, W. Sichuan, Xinjiang, W. Xizang.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 185)
var. cicutarium and var. pimpinellifolium Smith
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 724)
"Roadsides, waste places, building sites, railways, riverbeds, cultivated ground, lawns, poor and dry pastures to over 1000 m".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or cut.

Chemical:  Large patches can be treated with herbicide  (Weber, 2003; p. 160).


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This page was created on 19 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 28 APR 2013.