Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eriochloa procera
(Retz.) C. E. Hubb., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Eriochloa ramosa (Retz.) Kuntze

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: gao ye shu

English: slender cup grass, spring grass, tropical cupgrass

Habit:  grass

Description: 

Genus: "Annuals or perennials; panicle terminal, of several to many racemes, these spreading or appressed, generally approximate along a common axis; spikelets pubescent, solitary, occasionally in pairs, short-stalked or subsessile, in 2 rows on one side of a narrow rachis, the lower rachilla joint thickened, forming a dark-colored, ringlike callus below upper glume; fertle lemma indurate, mucronate or awned, the margins slightly inrolled." (Smith, 1979)

Species:  "Annual, tufted grass, the culms spreading at base, 22-90 cm high; leaf blades flat, 2.5-10 cm long, 3-5 mm broad; axis and rachis villous, the pedicels with several long hairs; spikelets about 3 mm long, appressed-pubescent except near tip, a marked calluslike ring below each spikelet"  (Smith, 1979; p. 328).

"Annual. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 20-100 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 2-30 cm long; 2-4 mm wide. Inflorescence: Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 3-10; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 2-10 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 4-20 cm long. Rhachis angular; puberulous on surface. Spikelet packing regular; 2-rowed. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels free, or fused to each other; united below; oblong; glabrous. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; (2.5-)3-4 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus globular; incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume; glabrous. Glumes: Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume elliptic; 1 times length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate; muticous. Florets: Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; elliptic; 0.9 times length of spikelet; 5-veined; pubescent; acute, or acuminate; muticous. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface granulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse; mucronate. Principal lemma awn 0.3-0.5 mm long overall. Palea involute; indurate" (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "a fairly common weed of gardens, roadsides, hillsides, pathways, and lawns, occurring from sea level to about 100 m" (Smith, 1979; p. 328).  "Uncommon in sunny, disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 52).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Eastern and southeastern Asia, Australia; naturalized in Africa and the neotropics (GRIN). Fosberg et al., (1987; p. 43) list as native in Micronesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 52)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 43)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 100)
Voucher cigted: Fosberg 60321 (US, BISH, POM, K)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 328)
Voucher cited: DA 8677
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 328)
Voucher cited: DA 14306
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 328)
Vouchers cited: DA 5603, Gillespie 3163.8, DA 8034, DA 9054, DA 9383, DA 7725, DA 8582, DA 9056, DA 17344, DA 9090
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H50627 (BISH, PTBG)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 43)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 43)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 100)
Voucher cited: Otobed PW-10006 (US, BISH)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 10006)
Taxon name on voucher: Eriochloa procera (Retz.) Hubb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 101)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 52)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 52)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Snow, Neil/Lau, Alex (2010) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Starr 990620-1 & Martz (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080611-01 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Queensland, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Streams, moist places. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 39)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Streams, moist places.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 28 APR 2013.