Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Erigeron karvinskianus
DC., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia le bi fei peng

English: bony-tip fleabane, daisy, daisy fleabane, Karwinsky's fleabane, Mexican daisy, Mexican fleabane, Santa Barbera daisy, seaside daisy

French: marguerite folle, marguerite marron, mère de famille nombreuse, pâquerette

Spanish: manzanilla silvestre

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs, short-lived perennial, caespitose, [10-] 15-40+ [-100] cm tall; caudex short, simple or few branched, taprooted. Stems creeping or prostrate to ascending or erect, sometimes rooting at nodes, branched upward, sometimes with axillary leaf tufts, sparsely strigose to glabrate, eglandular. Leaves: basal and lower usually withered at anthesis, petiolate, petiole narrowly winged, blade elliptic or obovate; cauline shortly petiolate, elliptic to obovate or oblanceolate, 1-4 x 0.3-1.4 cm, even sized, surfaces sparsely strigose to glabrate, eglandular, base attenuate to cuneate, margin 2-4-lobed or entire, slightly revolute, strigose, apex acute or acuminate, mucronulate. Capitula 1 or 2 [-5] at ends of upper branches, 5-7 x 10-13 mm. Involucre campanulate; phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate, membranous, linear to lanceolate, 1.5-3.3 x 0.3-0.6 mm, sparsely strigose, apex acuminate, outer slightly shorter, green along midvein, inner margin narrowly scarious, erose. Ray florets female, 1- or 2-seriate, 45-80, 6-8 mm, tube 1-1.5 mm, lamina flat or slightly coiling, white, sometimes pinkish upon drying, linear, ca. 5 x 0.6 mm, 2-denticulate at apex, glabrous; disk florets bisexual, yellow, narrowly funnelform, tube ca. 2 mm, sparsely hairy, veins orange, lobes glabrous, apex papillate. Achenes oblong, flattened, ca. 0.8 mm (immature), sparsely strigose, 2-veined. Pappus 2-seriate, outer of short setae, inner bristles 15-27, ca. 2.5 mm"  (Flora of China online).

"Sprawling perennial herbs usually forming dense clumps; stems numerous, decumbent to weakly erect, slender, usually 1-3 dm long, branched, glabrate to sparsely pubescent.  Leaves linear to elliptic, entire to dentate or shallowly lobed, the lower ones often oblanceolate and 3-lobed, 1-4 cm long, 0.1-l cm wide.  Heads solitary, 4-9 mm in diameter; involucral bracts in 3 series, linear, 3-6 mm long; ray florets 75-100 or more per head, rays white, becoming pink with age, 9-10 mm long; disk florets numerous, corollas yellow.  Achenes pale brown, ca. 1 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 315, 1860).

Description from the Flora of North America online.

Habitat/ecology:  Grows on cliff faces, disturbed locations in moderately wet areas.  A common garden plant. "Reproduces and spreads rapidly to form dense mats, can grow in almost any open habitat, including watercourses. Crowds out and displaces ground level plants, creating a virtual monoculture"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and sometimes locally common in moderately wet areas, ca. 300-1,300 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 315); "forming mats on forest floors, smothering low-growing natives"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In New Zealand, "usually on banks or cliffs in waste places, forest margins, streamsides, or scrubland" (Webb et al., 1988, p. 192).

Propagation:  "Seeds are dispersed by wind and water, stems layer, broken roots and rhizomes regrow. Often sold on garden stalls; often dumped in bushland"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).

Native range:  Neotropics, Mexico to Venezuela, Chile and the Antilles (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 315).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"A native of Mexico, frequently naturalised as a garden escape with a tendency to weediness". Voucher cited: W.R. Sykes NI 467 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 482, 528, 553)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/206)1551. "En RC, representa además un riesgo genético potencial para el endémico E. fernandezianus (Colla) Solbrig. La vimos cultivada en pocos jardines del pueblo de San Juan Bautista, pero su vigor y la facilidad con la cual se naturaliza deben, con el tiempo, dar a temer lo peor".
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 305)
Vouchers cited: DA 16438, DA 16091
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34216)
Taxon name on voucher: Erigeron karvinskianus DC.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34217)
Taxon name on voucher: Erigeron karvinskianus DC.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 315)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 315)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 315)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Hughes 36 (BISH)
Sparingly naturalized in wet montane forest and along stream beds to at least 750 m elevation.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 315)
Voucher cited: Forbes 1700.0 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 159)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Harley, Barbara (2009)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hillsides, escaped from cultivation; ca. 700 m.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 281)
In wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 192)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 159)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Très envahissant"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Baret, Stephane/Rouget, Mathieu/Richardson, David M./Lavergne, Christophe/Egoh, Benis/Dupont, Joel/Strasberg, Dominique (2006) (p. 758)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  A major problem on Kauai, Hawai‘i; spreading elsewhere. A serious weed on La Réunion.

Control: 

Physical:  "Dig out small spots: Avoid any unnecessary soil disturbance, Leave on site to rot down. plant material carefully. If seed is present, dispose of all plant material at a refuse transfer centre or burn it"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Chemical" "Sensitive to hormone type herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba and triclopyr and to soil-applied hexazinone and tebuthiuron" (Motooka et al., 2003).

"1. Spray: clopyralid (1ml/L). Selective.  2. Spray: glyphosate (10ml/L + penetrant in winter) or metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (2g/10L + penetrant (knapsack) or 15g/100 L + penetrant (spraygun))"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 27 DEC 2012.