Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eremochloa ophiuroides
(Munro) Hack., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Ischaemum ophiuroides Munro

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jia jian cao

English: centipede grass, lazy-man's grass

Habit:  grass

Description: 

Genus:  "Slender perennials with solitary terminal racemesSpikelets appearing solitary at each node, but actually paired, only the sessile developing, the pediceled reduced to a glume-like or stipiform pedicel; sessile spikelets dorsally compressed, awnless, imbricate along one side of a tardily disarticulating rachis; glume chartaceous, the first broad, flat or only slightly rounded on the back, the margins narrowly inflexed, 2-keeled, the keels spinulose or rigidly pectinate, at least on the lower part; second glume 3-nerved, the midnerve sometimes keeled, lemmas hyaline, the lower 3-nerved, triandrous, the palea similar; fertile lemma entire, usually nerveless, the palea similar but narrower."

Species:  "Low perennial, creeping, stems rooting at lower nodes; racemes smooth, spikelike, terminal and axillary, slenderly long-stalked, 1-3 cm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 233).

"Habit: Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 1-30 cm long; 0.8-1.2 mm diam.; 2-3-noded. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 3-10 cm long; 2-4 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins glabrous. Leaf-blade apex obtuse. Inflorescence: Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; straight, or arcuate; unilateral; 3-6 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened; glabrous on margins. Rhachis internodes columnar, or clavate; 2 mm long. Rhachis internode tip crateriform. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; foliaceous; 3-4 mm long. Sterile spikelets: Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; compressed strongly; 4-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pubescent; base truncate; with central boss; attached transversely. Glumes: Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 times length of spikelet; coriaceous; 2-keeled; winged on keel; winged broadly; winged near apex; 7-veined. Lower glume primary vein pectinately spinose. Lower glume surface convex. Lower glume apex truncate. Upper glume ovate; coriaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged below; 3-veined. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline; ciliate on margins; obtuse. Palea of lower sterile floret 1 length of lemma. Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea 1 times length of lemma; hyaline. Flower: Anthers 3; 1.8-2 mm long" (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southeast Asia (Stone, 1970; p. 233).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 233)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 43)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Moist meadows, hillsides, especially on clay soils; 200-1200 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 336)
On moist grassland.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Moist meadows, hillsides, especially on clay soils; 200-1200 m.
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  According to Stone (1970; p. 233), this species was experimentally introduced by the Guam Experiment Station in 1927 as a lawn grass, but has probably disappeared.


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This page was created on 29 DEC 2003 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.