Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Erechtites valerianifolius
(Link ex Spreng.) DC., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Senecio valerianifolius Link ex Spreng.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bai jiang ye ju qin

English: Brazilian fireweed, Ceylon thistle, fireweed, fireweed daisy

Fijian: co vuka, thovuka

Kwara‘ae: asaka mockta‘a

Samoan: fua lele, fua lele, fua lele, pua lele, pua lele, vao lele, vao lele

Tongan: fisi puna

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs, annual. Stems erect, 50-100 cm tall, simple or branched in upper part, striate, subglabrous. Leaves long petiolate; petiole narrowly winged; blade oblong to elliptic, both surfaces glabrous, pinnately veined, base cuneate, margin irregularly double serrate or pinnatipartite; lobes 12-16, lanceolate, acuminate, serrate to irregularly lobed, or rarely shallowly lobed, apex acute or acuminate; upper leaves similar to median leaves but smaller. Capitula numerous, erect or pendulous, in terminal and upper axillary dense corymbose panicles, ca. 10 x 3 mm, with linear bracteoles. Involucres cylindric-campanulate; phyllaries uniseriate, 12-14 (-16), linear, 7-8 x 0.5-0.75 mm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent, 4- or 5-veined, apically acute or acuminate. Florets numerous, yellowish purplish; outer florets uni- or biseriate, corolla filiform, apically 5-denticulate; central florets minutely tubular-funnelform, 7-8 mm, rather longer and broader than outer ones, 5-denticulate, apically glandular thickened. Style branches with conical appendages. Achenes cylindric, 2.5-3.5 mm, glabrous or puberulent, 10-12-ribbed. Pappus reddish, as long as florets"  (Flora of China online).

"Annual herbs 0.5-2.5 m tall, glabrous or pubescent, the hairs spreading.  Leaves lanceolate to narrowly oblate, 4-25 cm long, 2-10 cm wide, usually deeply pinnately lobed, margins coarsely dentate or serrate, occasionally merely coarsely dentate or serrate, usually petiolate, petioles 0-8.5 cm long, sometimes winged.  Heads erect; involucral bracts 12-14 (-16), 7-8 mm long; corollas yellowish to pale purple; pappus pink to pale purple"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 314).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "a rather weedy species generally in relatively wet, disturbed areas, 0-1,400 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 314).  In Fiji, "found from near sea level to the highest elevation in Fiji (1,323 m) as an often locally frequent naturalized weed in clearings, dense forest often along streams, and thickets on crests and ridges, and along roadsides" (Smith, 1991; pp. 315-316).  "Occasional to common in open, disturbed places, often in montane taro crops" (Whistler, 1988; p. 11). In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides and cultivation, rarely troublesome in pasture; also in landslips and other naturally-disturbed habitats. From altitudes of about 100 to 2000 m" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 72). In Tonga, "a plantation and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 269).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mexico to Brazil and Argentina (Wagner et al.. 1999; p. 314). Widespread in Central and South America and the West Indies (Smith, 1991; pp. 315-316).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Harris 197, Yuncker 9027
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9029 (BISH), W. Harris 197 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 41)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"An uncommon adventive in moist disturbed sites, such as forest clearings. Apparently not so aggressive an invader on the Island as in Australia (N.S.W.) and New Zealand". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 189 (CHR), G .Uhe 1187 (K), W.R.Sykes NI 476 (CHR)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 315-316)
Voucher cited: DA 1357
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 315-316)
Vouchers cited: DA 8798, DA 11487, Smith 333
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 315-316)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 180A, Greenwood 180, Smith 4194, Gibbs 811, DA 7097, DA 14620, DA 3817, Smith 8670, Greenwood 180B, DA 11502, DA 11047, DA 10980, Gillespie 3542, Valentine 23, DA 10609
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 314)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: L.W. Cuddihy & W.P. Char ESP 358 (BISH)
Only plant seen.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 314)
Voucher cited: Forbes 534.L (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 314)
Voucher cited: Forbes 534.L (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 314)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 314)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 314)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 290)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 37)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 73)
Widespread, from altitudes of about 100 to 2000 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 617)
In old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes, often abundant.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 11)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 72)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 90, Scarth-Johnson 94
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 269)
"Throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 269)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15425
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Lawrence 228
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 269)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15153
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 349)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, field margins; ca. 1700 m. Guangdong, Hainan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 281)
On margin of forests or in wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 146)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 262)
"Scrubland, grassland, waste places, forest margins, gardens".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 39)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Fields and roadsides, up to 1,700 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 4 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 25 APR 2013.