Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Erechtites hieraciifolius
(L.) Raf. ex DC., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Senecio hieraciifolius L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: liang zi cai

English: American burnweed, American fireweed, burnweed, fireweed, Malayan groundsel, pilewort

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs, annual. Stem solitary, erect, 40-100 cm tall, simple or much branched in upper part, striate, sparsely pubescent. Leaves sessile, winged; blade lanceolate to oblong, 7-16 x 3-4 cm, both surfaces glabrous or shortly pubescent on veins, pinnately veined, basally gradually attenuate or subamplexicaul, margin irregularly coarsely dentate, apex acute or shortly acuminate. Capitula numerous, arranged in terminal corymb, ca. 15 x 1.5-1.8 mm. Involucres yellowish to brown-green, tubular, calyculate at base, bracteoles linear; phyllaries uniseriate, linear or linear-lanceolate, 8-11 x 0.5-1 mm, glabrous or sparsely pilose, margin narrowly scarious, apically acute or rather obtuse. Florets numerous, greenish or red tinged, tubular; outer florets uni- or biseriate, corolla filiform, 7-11 mm, 4- or 5-denticulate; central florets minutely tubular, 8-12 mm, 5-denticulate. Achenes cylindric, 2.5-3 mm, conspicuously ribbed. Pappus white, 7-8 mm"  (Flora of China online).

"Annual herbs 0.1-2.5 m tall, glabrous or spreading pubescent throughout.  Leaves numerous, well-distributed along the stem, lanceolate to obovate, oblanceolate, or elliptic, 4-12 (-20) cm long, (0.5-) 1-3 (-4) cm wide, irregularly and coarsely dentate, serrate, or occasionally irregularly lobed, petioles 0-2 cm long, often winged or clasping stem.  Heads nodding; involucral bracts 10-17 mm long; corollas greenish yellow or whitish; pappus white"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1808).

Description from Flora of North America online.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in relatively dry areas, 0-1,400 m (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1808).  In China, "forests, thickets, slopes, wet places; 1000-1400 m"  (Flora of China online).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southern Canada to northern Argentina (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1808).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. cacalioides
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. cacalioides
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. cacalioides
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. cacalioides
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 313-414)
Voucher cited: Forbes 555.H (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 313-414)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 313-414)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 313-414)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 313-414)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 313-414)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
var. cacalioides (Fisch. ex Spreng.) Griseb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 4)
Voucher: Lorence 9840 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 133)
Taxon name on voucher: Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fujian, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 280-281)
In moist places of wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 146)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
var. hieracifolia and var. cacalioides Griseb.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 262)
"Forest margins, waste places, wet sites".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 39)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Naturalized on deforested mountain slopes".
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 21 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 27 DEC 2012.