Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Emilia sonchifolia
(L.) DC., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Emilia javanica (Burm. f.) C. B. Rob.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yi dian hong

English: Cupid's shaving-brush, emilia, Flora's paint brush, purple sow thistle, red tassel-flower, sow thistle

Fijian: se vuka

French: émilie

Japanese: usubeni-nigana

Mangarevan: runa

Niuean: pualele, pupu lele

Samoan: fua lele, fua lele, fua lele lili‘i, fua lele lili‘i, fualele, meleni vao, pualele

Spanish: borlitas

Tongan: longlongo‘uha

Habit:  herb

Description:  "An annual herb; root a branched taproot; stems weak, erect or often branched at the base, smooth or sparingly hairy, 10 to 60 cm tall; lower leaves deeply and irregularly pinnately or bluntly toothed; lobes nearly round, kidney-shaped, ovate, triangular-ovate or obovate, 4 to 16 cm long, 1 to 8 cm wide with narrowly winged petioles; upper leaves smaller than lower leaves, alternate, usually entire, sometimes coarsely dentate, sessile and somewhat clasping the main stem;  inflorescence a terminal, involucrate flower head resembling a single flower, 12 to 14  mm long, 4 to 5 mm wide, urn-shaped, long-peduncled; flowering branches usually dichotomously branched with 3 to 6 heads, each head or capitulum a composite of numerous florets; involucre green, cylindrical, somewhat inflated below, in a single series; inner florets perfect, outer ones pistillate, 30 to 60 per head, flowers purple, scarlet, red, pink, orange, white or lilac; ovary inferior, one cell, one oval with basal placentation; fruit a dry indehiscent achene prismatic, 2.4 to 3 mm long, narrowly oblong with 5 shortly hairy ribs alternating with indistinct, smooth ribs, outer achenes reddish brown, inner ones off-white; pappus white, abundant, 8 mm long.  This species is recognized by the sowthistle-like leaves, the long-peduncled, usually dichotomously branched inflorescence and the single ring of involucral bracts that are somewhat inflated below"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 342).

"Similar to [E. coccinea and E. fosbergii] except:  usually more slender and branched.  Leaves usually lyrate-pinnatifid and dentate, the lower ones usually pinnately lobed.  Involucre 2-4 times as long as wide, as long as corolla, consisting of ca. 8 bracts, usually 9-12 mm long; florets usually 20-40 per head, corollas lavender to pale purple, as long as the involucral bracts or scarcely surpassing them, the lobes 0.3-1.7 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 312).

var. sonchifolia:  "Heads narrowly cylindric, about 3 times as long as broad, 10-12 x 3-4 mm, the phyllaries 6-10, the flowers 15-30 per head, the corolla lobes 0.5-0.7 mm long" (Smith, 1991; pp. 318-320).

var. javanica:  "Heads broadly cylindric, about twice as long as broad, 10-13 x 6-8 mm, the phyllaries 8-10, the flowers 25-35 per head, the corolla lobes 1-1.5 mm long" (Smith, 1991; pp. 318-320).

Habitat/ecology:  "Occurs in open grassy or waste areas, dry stony areas, roadsides, plantation crops such as tea and bananas, and cultivated annual crops.  It grows from sea level to 1000 m and inhabits many soil types" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 342).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized at low elevations in dry, disturbed areas" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 312).  In Fiji, "naturalized from near sea level to about 900 m as a weed in cultivated areas and villages, along roadsides, on open hillsides among reeds and on edges of open ponds, and sometimes in forested areas" (Smith, 1991; pp. 318-320).  In Niue, "a locally common plantation weed.  Occasionally it grows in other open places" (Sykes, 1970; p. 65).  "Common in sunny disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 10). In Papua New Guinea, "a weed of cultivation, pastures, roadsides and wasteland" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 72). In Tonga, "a plantation and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 269-270).  In Taiwan, "common in coastal regions, sandy places, wastelands, roadside and paddy ridges, sea level to about 850 m"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Eastern and southern Asia and western Pacific (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 312).

var. sonchifolia:  "Pantropical, but probably originating in southern Asia..."  (Smith, 1991; pp. 318-320).

var. javanica:  "presumably indigenous in eastern Asia and Malesia, spreading eastward as far as the Tuamotus, Marquesas, and Hawai'i.  Probably it reached the Fijian Region early in the present century..."  (Smith, 1991; pp. 318-320).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9529
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9529 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Harris 242, Yuncker 9107, Yuncker 9123, Whistler 1390
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9123 (BISH), Yuncker 9107 (BISH), W. Harris 242 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 131)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 2)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 41)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2316 (US), Fosberg 31614 (US, BISH, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1958 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59195
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1813 (US), Falanruw 1820b (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58925
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Moore 429 (US), Fosberg 31369 (US), Anderson 613 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Nassau Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
?
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 13)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 97)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2752 (US), Glassman 2777 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58428a (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58509 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2777 (BISH), L. Stemmermann 3015 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 778 (BISH), N.S. Tangalin 1268 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 50091)
Taxon name on voucher: Emilia sonchifolia var. sonchifolia
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46672 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 318-320)
Vouchers cited: var. sonchifolia: DA 1300
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 318-320)
Vouchers cited: var. sonchifolia: Smith 6883; var. javanica: DA 5694, DA 10775
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 318-320)
Vouchers cited: var. sonchifolia: Greenwood 167, Smith 4311, DA 10424, im Thurn 130, Parks 20622, DA 5996, DA 1891, Greenwood 167A, DA 11914, DA 11079, Smith 7089, DA 10624; var. javanica: DA 10291, Smith 4335, Parks 20621, DA 5994, DA 9815
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 318-320)
Voucher cited: var. sonchifolia: St. John 18173
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: St. John 14917 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B. Huguenin s.n. (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 25)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 129 (GH), St. John 14478 (BISH), St. John 14904 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: St. John 14775 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Tauna Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: St. John 14753 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. javanica (N.L. Burman) J. Mattfeld. Voucher cited: J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9339 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39395)
Taxon name on voucher: Emilia sonchifolia
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. javanica (N.L. Burman) J. Mattfeld. Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 502 (PAP), B.G. Decker 668 (PAP), B.G. Decker 774 (PAP), B.G. Decker 775 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1022 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1213 (PAP), M.-H. Sachet & B.G. Decker 1134 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6764 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. javanica (N.L. Burman) J. Mattfeld. Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 1990 (PAP), B.G. Decker 1943 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. javanica (N.L. Burman) J. Mattfeld. Voucher cited: B.G. Decker 2309 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 17)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64792 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 17)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. javanica (N.L. Burman) J. Mattfeld. Voucher cited: J. Florence 10292 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 17)
var. javanica (Burm. f.) Mattf.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 76)
Vouchers cited: Moore 35, Fosberg & Sachet 63244, BRY 26058
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: P. Morat 6945 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg & M.-H. Sachet 63244 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 17)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 76)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 56, Grant 4019, Grant 3649
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2445 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 62871 (PAP); var. javanica (N.L. Burman) J. Mattfeld. Voucher cited: J. Florence , P. Birnbaum & M. Guérin 9701 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2572 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10057 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 39)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2049 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. javanica (N.L. Burman) J. Mattfeld. Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 2049 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 8083 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 42033)
Taxon name on voucher: Emilia sonchifolia
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
var. javanica (N.L. Burman) J. Mattfeld. Voucher cited: J. Florence 6115 (PAP); var. sonchifolia . Voucher cited: J. Florence 6114 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 590-592)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4028 (GUAM), Stone 4127 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 4)
Var. sonchifolia; voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40019 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 312)
Var. javanica (N.L. Burm.) Mattf. and var. sonchifolia
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120646 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Shannon, Robynn K./Herbst, Derral R. (1997) (p. 52)
East Maui. Var. javanica (N.L. Burm.) Mattf. and var. sonchifolia; voucher cited: McKinnon et al. 510 (US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 312)
Var. javanica (N.L. Burm.) Mattf. and var. sonchifolia
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 174)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Presence not verified.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 100)
Vouchers cited: Thaman & Manner 115 (SUVA), Thaman & Manner 22313 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: MacKee 30546
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: MacKee 27277
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45870
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Hmakone & Sam in MacKee 25849
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 35)
Vouchers cited: Franc 2226, Buchholz 1518, MacKee 17379, Suprin 2287
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: MacKee 13079
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 65)
Vouchers cited: CHR 170494, CHR 170495
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 119)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9747 (BISH), Yuncker 10071 (BISH)
"Common weed in plantations, along roadsides and in waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 42)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 63)
Voucher: Lorence 9819 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 112)
Taxon name on voucher: Emilia sonchifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 10008)
Taxon name on voucher: Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 287)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 567)
Abundant.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 37)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 72)
Common from near sea level to about 1000 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 620)
In open waste places, cultivated land, etc., in and about towns and settlements at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 71)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 298, Soakai 549
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 269-270)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15706
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 269-270)
"Found throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Soakai 950
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 269-270)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15656
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks "a", Soakai 785, Soakai 793
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 269-270)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15276
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 348)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 8)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 849, Soakai 1021
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 60)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
An occasional volunteer.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 92)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Weedy slopes, roadsides, field margins, sandy places; sea level to 2100 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 280)
In wasteland or on margins of farmlands.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 343)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 343)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 340)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 38)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Weedy slopes, roadsides, field margins, sandy places; sea level to 2100 m.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 35)
"Common in dense weedy sod back of beach". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36855 (US)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2644
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Georgia, South Carolina
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  May hybridize with Emilia fosbergii where they occur together (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 312).


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 8 DEC 2010.