Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Eleutheranthera ruderalis
(Sw.) Sch. Bip., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Melampodium ruderale Sw.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: li yao jin yao jian

Spanish: ogiera

Tongan: pakaka

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Genus:  "Annual, erect herbs with opposite, petiolate, simple leaves; flowering heads small, homogamous, discoid, or sometimes heterogamous and radiate, sessile or on short axillary peduncles, solitary or in clusters of 2-4, the phyllaries few, in 1 or 2 series, the inner ones often stramineous, the receptacle bearing keeled, oblong-elliptic, acuminate, scarious, pilose paleae embracing the achenes; ray flowers usually absent or, when present, few, neuter, and with the corolla limb small; disk flowers perfect, fertile, the corolla tubular, 5-lobed, the anther bases sagittate, the style branches linear, acute or acuminate, pilose at apex; achenes narrowly obovoid, somewhat compressed, subangular, narrowed to a small cylindric boss at apex, the pappus absent" (Smith, 1991; pp. 275-276).

Species:  "Erect herb to about 75 cm high, with sparse indument; the flowers are yellow, and the achenes are minutely white-puberulent distally.  The species bears a resemblance to Sigesbeckia orientalis"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 275-276).

Species:  "Herbs, erect, to 30 cm. Stems glabrate to pilose. Petiole 1-2 cm; leaf blade ovate, 3 (-8) cm, 3-veined from near base, both surfaces pubescent and glandular, base obtuse, acute, or acuminate, margin entire or crenulate-dentate, apex acute or acuminate. Synflorescence terminal, of 2-5 capitula; peduncles slender, pilose, usually longer than capitulum. Capitula discoid, 4-6 mm; phyllaries 2-seriate, outer slightly imbricate, ovate, abaxially pubescent toward base, margin ciliate, apex acuminate or acute, inner paleaceous and involute around florets. Florets 2-6, ca. 2.5 mm; anthers black; style branches lanceolate, pubescent abaxially. Achenes brown, ca. 3 mm, 3-angled, body tuberculate, sparsely setuliferous; pappus an apical peg"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  Infrequent in Fiji and occurs sparingly in Samoa and Tonga (Smith, 1991; pp. 275-276). In Papua New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, grazing land, and sometimes cultivation; most often on gravelly soil and in areas of seasonal climate" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 71). "Occasional to common in cultivated places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 10).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical America, now a widespread weed (Smith, 1991; pp. 275-276).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 41712)
Taxon name on voucher: Eleutheranthera ruderalis
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 275)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 910
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 275)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 772A, Greenwood 772, H.B.R. Parham 46
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Presence not verified.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 42)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 71)
Widely spread at low altitudes.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 71)
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 61)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 243)
Taxon name on voucher: Eleutheranthera ruderalis.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 10)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 38)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Recently naturalized in Taiwan.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 113)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)


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This page was created on 14 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 26 DEC 2012.