Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Eleocharis dulcis
(Burm.f.) Trin. ex Henschel, Cyperaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Andropogon dulcis Burm. f.; Eleocharis tuberosa (Roxb.) Schult.; Scirpus tuberosus Roxb.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: uchaga-lane

Chinese: bi qi

English: Chinese waterchestnut, ground-chestnut, waternut

Fijian: kuta, sasa, taria

French: châtaigne d'eau, cevuga vula, scirpe doux

Kwara‘ae: ngwano

Palauan: kerdikes, redil kerdikes, sechal kerdikes

Samoan: ‘utu‘utu, ‘utu‘utu, utuutu

Spanish: cabezas de negrito, nuez China, pitsi

Tongan: kuta, kutu

Wallisian: kutu

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "Tufted perennial with short rhizome and elongated stolons, most of these terminated by a globose tuber; culms terete, 50-200 cm tall, 2-8 mm thick, empty and transversely septate, glaucous to shining deep green, clothed at base with a purplish membranous sheath truncate at orifice; spike cylindric, 2-6 cm long, 3-6 mm broad, terete, obtuse at apex, glaucous to straw-colored, many-flowerd; glumes subdensely imbricated, oblong to oblong-obovate, 4-6 mm long, 2-3 mm broad, thickly herbaceous, obtuse at apex, the obtuse median area with a distinct midvein and many slender veins; achenes obovate to broadly so, thickly biconvex, 1.5-2 mm long, 1-1.5 mm broad, maturing shining brown, weakly cancellate by hexagonal epidermal cells, the apex with an inconspicuous annual thickening, the style base deltoid, about 2/3 as broad as the achene apex; style 2- or 3-fid; hypogynous bristles 6-8, as long as to nearly twice as long as the achene body, retrorsely scabrous; stamens 3."  (Smith, 1979)"Culms robust, 60 (or 90) cm tall, glabrous, transversely septate, stoloniferous; corms globose, edible; sheaths few, truncate; inflorescence a solitary terminal spikelet; perianthoid bristles mostly 6, but 5-8; stamens 1, 2 or 3; style either bifed or trifid; nut obovoid"  (Stone, 1970; p. 171).

Habitat/ecology:  Found in marshes on Guam (Stone, 1970; p. 171).  In Fiji, "it occurs from near sea level to 825 m, in swamps and rotting in the mud of shallow lakes and ponds to a depth of 1 m" (Smith, 1979; pp. 239-240).

Propagation:  Seed.

Native range:  "Tropical West Africa and Madagascar to southern Asia and Japan, Micronesia, Malesia, northern Australia and eastward in the Pacific to Samoa and Tonga" (Smith, 1979; pp. 239-240). Widely cultivated in tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9296 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Aunu‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Native?
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
Native?
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: N.S. Tangalin 1261 (PTBG), C. Trauernicht 100 (BISH, NY)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 48703)
Taxon name on voucher: Eleocharis dulcis
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 239-240)
Voucher cited: Smith 6887
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 239-240)
Voucher cited: Smith 6887
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island probably introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 171)
Vouchers cited: MacGregor 469, Rodin 689
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1402)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 10098)
Taxon name on voucher: Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Henschel
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 69)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 119-120)
In open wet lands, shallow swamps, etc., at low altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 239-240)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Native?
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 71)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (pp. 84-85)
Voucher cited: Hotta 4873
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (pp. 84-85)
Vouchers cited: Hotta 5499, Sykes 404, Whistler 6507, Whistler 7472
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (pp. 84-85)
Voucher cited: Whistler 6369
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (pp. 84-85)
Vouchers cited: Crosby 180, Yuncker 16027, Hotta 5070, Soakai 1055, Buelow 1037, Buelow & Sykes 15a
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 71)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16027
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 65)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Field margins, lake margins, commonly cultivated; near sea level to 1500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hubei, W Hunan, Jiangsu.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 312)
Cultivated. In ponds, marshes and paddy fields.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 38)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Field margins, lake margins, commonly cultivated; near sea level to 1500 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 21 APR 2013.