Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Elaeocarpus angustifolius
Blume, Elaeocarpaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. ex G. Don; Elaeocarpus grandis F. Muell.; Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yuan guo du ying

English: blue fig, blue marble tree, blue quandong, blueberry-ash, Brisbane quandong, brush quandong, Indian oilfruit, New Guinea-quandong, quandong, silver quandong, white quandong, wooden beggar-bead

French: cerisier à graine bleue

Other: hando

Rotuman: umasa

Samoan: sāpatua, sāpatua, siapatua, siapatua

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree, 20-30 m tall; trunk greyish-white, 60-80 cm thick.  Leaves more or less clustered at the ends of the twigs, oblong to lanceolate, acutish, 8-25 x 5-8 cm, glabrous or sparsely hairy; primary nerves forked at the ends; margin crenate to entire, not rarely undulate; base cuneate to acuminate; petiole 10-15 mm long. Trees with alternate leaves.  Racemes 8-14 cm long, axillary or on the leafless twigs below the leaf-clusters, rarely scattered on the thicker twigs; buds and their pedicels silky hairy, glistening; corolla whitish, when half-open 15-20 mm across.  Sepals 5, free; petals 5, more or less deeply divided into laciniate lobes; disc ring-like; stamens to 35, anthers linear, erect; ovary (5(-7)-celled; cells 2-ovulate; drupe globose or ellipsoid, 5(-7)-celled, cells 1-seeded.  Fruit globose or ellipsoid, 18-28 mm across, shining, cornflower-blue, inedible.  Stone bone-like, globose, outside strongly rugose to sculptured, with 5 shallow grooves, inside 5-celled, the fifth cell very often sterile or in-grown (but seedless loculi not much obscured by the growth of the seeds in the others)"  (Peekel, 1984; p. 352).

"a tall tree (to 36 m or more high), with trunk to 1.25 m in diameter and with large buttresses, and with horizontally spreading branches.  The petals are white, usually about 16-17 mm long, and copiously and deeply laciniate.  The fruits are blue, globose, and up to 3 cm in diameter"  (Smith, 1981; p. 353).

"Arbre de 10-25 m; tronc ‚lanc‚ de 0.20-1 m de diamŠtre, … ‚corce gris ou brun clair un peu rude; frondaison l‚gŠre, branches plagiotropes.  Rameaux grˆles et finement pubescents au sommet.  Feuilles un peu ‚chelonn‚es … l'extr‚mit‚ des remeaux, papyrac‚es, brillantes, vert fonc‚; limbe de 7-22 x 1.5-5 cm, ‚troitement elliptique, … sommet aigu et base att‚nu‚e, marges r‚guliŠrement serret‚es sauf … la base; face sup‚rieure glabre ou parfois pubescente vers la base; face inf‚rieure glabre ou garnie de petits poils ‚pars apprim‚s.  Nervure m‚diane souvent car‚n‚e en dessous; nervures secondaires 10-16 paires, fines, espac‚es de 0.5-2 cm, l‚gŠrement arqu‚es, reseau de nerveiles peu visible, mailles lƒches.  P‚tiole de 0.6-1.5 cm, g‚n‚ralement ‚troitement ail‚, soyeux … glabrescent, d‚pourvu de renflement au sommet, plat ou l‚gŠrement en creux au-dessus.  Inflorescences nombreuses, dress‚es a horizontales, s'‚chelonnant dans les parties d‚feuill‚es des rameaux, trŠs florifŠres, comportant 10-25 fleurs pendant unilat‚ralement; axes de 3-8 cm, finement soyeux … glabrescents; p‚dicelles de 0.7-1.2 cm.  Boutons ovo‹des … oblongs, aigus au sommet, soyeux; p‚tales un peu involut‚s.  Calice vert pƒle longuement d‚pass‚ par les lobes lacini‚s de la corolle blance , elle-mˆme souvent nettement d‚pass‚e par le style.  S‚pales 5, minces, longs de 0.6-1 cm, ext‚rieurement et int‚rieurement garnis de poils soyeux.  P‚tales 5, membraneux, ‚troitement obtriangulaires, longs de 0.9-1.5 cm, divis‚s jusqu'… mi-hauteur ou presque en 3-6 segments lin‚aires eux-mˆmes bi ou trifurqu‚s, souvent garnis de poils dans les sinus les plus profonds, laineux sur les bords non involut‚s, … base interne soyeuse, sans protub‚rance.  tamines 30-50, ins‚r‚es sur le disque, longues de 4-6 mm; anthŠres … lŠvre ext‚rieure acumin‚e et prolong‚e par 3-5 soies (certaines de 1.5 mm); filet trŠs court, … peine plus ‚troit que l'anthŠre.  Disque haut de 1 mm environ, … lobes peu accentu‚s, h‚riss‚ de poils.  Ovaire … dense revˆtement soyeux, 8-10-sillonn‚; style de 0.8-1.6 cm, soyeux dans la moiti‚ inf‚rieure; 4-6 ovules dans chacune des (4) 4 loges ovariennes.  Fruit subsp‚rique, bleu vif … maturit‚, de 1-2 cm de diamŠtre; m‚socarpe fibreux; noyau verruqueux-muriqu‚ marque de 4-5 sillons correspondant aux loges; 1-5 loges fertiles contenant chacune 1 graine"  (Aubr‚ville and Leroy, 1982; pp. 46-47).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "an occasional cultivated tree found at elevations from near sea level to about 250 m)" (Smith, 1981; p. 353).  In Papua New Guinea (native), "generally a very common secondary species in disturbed vegetation, at least in Papuasia.  It can persist into advanced secondary or even later, becoming a canopy or even emergent species.  It is often recorded from 'primary forest' but many of these primary forests are likely to be mature regrowth, and it is doubtful if the species would regenerate under a closed canopy"  (Henty, 1981; p. 88).

Propagation:  Seed. May be spread by birds or bats. "Many species of birds are attracted to the bright blue fruits" (Henty, 1981; p. 88).

Native range:  Southern and southeastern Asia, Australia, New Caledonia; cultivated elsewhere (GRIN)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 637983)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus grandis
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 353)
Vouchers cited: Howard 49, DDA L.22233 (DF 74), DA 490, DA L.11442
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 14673)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus grandis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 67)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED113 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. (2006) (p. 7)
Vouchers cited: C. Daehler 1077 (BISH), C. Daehler 1078 (HAW), C. Caehler 1105 (BISH), K. Nagata 279 (HLA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou native
Tirel, Christiane/Jérémie, Joël (1982) (pp. 45-48)
Vouchers cited: Bergeret 67, MacKee 28186
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré native
Tirel, Christiane/Jérémie, Joël (1982) (pp. 45-48)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2651
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) native
Tirel, Christiane/Jérémie, Joël (1982) (pp. 45-48)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2220 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 598210)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre native
Tirel, Christiane/Jérémie, Joël (1982) (pp. 45-48)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 405, Balansa 1312, Balansa 1312, Baudouin 762, Baumann-Bodenheim & Guillaumin 7154, Baumann-Bodenheim & Gaillaumin 9267, Bernardi 9653, Brousmiche 1248, Buchholz 1074, Däniker 663 (Z), Dࢴniker 1137 (Z), Däniker 1637, Däniker 3010 (Z), Franc 215 A, Franc 215 (Z), Franc 300 (Z), Green 1162, Guillaumin 13357, Hürlimann 423, Hülimann 1264, Kay 51 s.loc., Lam 7210, Lécart 88-164 s.loc., Lenormand (Vieillard 163), Le Rat s.n., MacDaniels 2281, MacKee 3615, MacKee 5176, MacKee 23356, MacKee 26179, MacKee 28003, MacKee 33091, MacKee 33476, MacMilan 5147, Pancher s.n. s.loc., Pancher 166, de Pompery s.n., Sarlin 8 s.loc., Thiebaut 341 s.loc., Thorne 28125, Vieillard 163 (a), Vieillard 163 (b), Vieillard 686-696 s.loc., Virot 294, Webster & Hiltreth 14587, Webster & Hiltreth 14764, White 2170
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 138858)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 401974)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 402026)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1909) (voucher ID: BISH 592996)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 652341)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1979) (voucher ID: PTBG 31302)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) native
Tirel, Christiane/Jérémie, Joël (1982) (pp. 45-48)
Vouchers cited: Bernardi 9684, Germain s.n., MacKee 13044, MacKee 25159, MacKee 33748, Pancher 696
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 1001753)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines)   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 34726)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 157)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago native
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 352)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Voucher: Flynn 6963 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 277)
Taxon name on voucher: Elaeocarpus grandis
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Broad-leaved mountain and valley rain forests; 400-1300 m. Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 38)
Cultivated only
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Introduced as a forestry tree and invading intact native forest in Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 APR 2013.