Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Elaeis guineensis
N. Jacquin, Arecaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: you zong

English: African oil palm, macaw-fat, oil palm

French: palmier à huile, palmier à huile d'Afrique

Japanese: opiriyasi

Maori (Cook Islands): nū tāmara

Pohnpeian: nihn ahprika

Spanish: palma Africana

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trunk stout, solitary, covered by the persistent leaf-bases above, bare below, there dark gray-brown, ringed. Leaves large, pinnate, the lower segments as spines on the petiole margin; segments many, irregularly divergent, somewhat fascicled in 4's or 5's; inflorescence large, headlike, with spinose tipped branches borne close to the trunk, among the leaves" (Stone, 1970; p. 139).

"Tall palm, 8.3-20 m tall, erect, heavy, trunks ringed; monoecious, male and female flowers in separate clusters, but on same tree; trunk to 20 m tall, usually less, 30 cm in diameter, leaf-bases adhere; petioles 1.3-2.3 m long, 12.5-20 cm wide, saw-toothed, broadened at base, fibrous, green; blade pinnate, 3.3-5 m long, with 100-150 pairs of leaflets; leaflets 60-120 cm long, 3.5-5 cm broad; central nerve very strong, especially at base, green on both surfaces; flower-stalks from lower leaf-axils, 10-30 cm long and broad; male flowers on short furry branches 10-15 cm long, set close to trunk on short pedicels; female flowers and consequently fruits in large clusters of 200-300, close to trunk on short heavy pedicels, each fruit plum-like, ovoid-oblong to 3.5 cm long and about 2 cm wide, black when ripe, red at base, with thick ivory-white flesh and small cavity in center; nuts encased in a fibrous covering which contains the oil. About 5 female inflorescences are produced per year; each inflorescence weighing about 8 kg, the fruits weighing about 3.5 g each." (Duke, 1983)

Habitat/ecology:  Cultivated for oil from the fruits. May escape cultivation and naturalize.

Propagation:  Seeds.

Native range:  Africa; widely cultivated in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cultivated?
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 83)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 83)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 4)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 110)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 58396 (BISH)
Naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 438)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 12)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 371)
Voucher cited: Moore 488
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (p. 75)
Naturalized.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 371)
Voucher cited: Grant 4350
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (p. 75)
Naturalized in the low elevation Fautaua Valley.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 139)
May no longer be present.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 83)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013)
Reported present in the National Tropical Botanical Garden but no voucher specimen.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013)
Reported present in the Harold L. Lyon Arboretum. Foster Botanical Garden and Waimea Arboretum & Botanical Garden but no voucher specimen.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 83)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 111)
Voucher cited: MacKee 38348
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 266)
Voucher cited: CHR 170311
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 23)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 101)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 83)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 170)
Cultivated for ornamental purposes and producing fruits abundantly.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 70)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Potential invader.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Sumatra
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 38)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 113)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (p. 76)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (p. 76)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Southeastern Brazil (Silvia Ziller, communication to Aliens listserver).

Control:  Physical. Cut down.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 APR 2013.