Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Elaeagnus angustifolia
L., Elaeagnaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: sha zao, xia ye mu ban xia

English: elaeagnus, oleaster, Russian-olive, trebizond-date

French: chalef, olivier de Bohême

Spanish: árbol del paraíso, olivo de Bohemia, panjino

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A small tree up to 6 m tall.  Young shoots with dense silvery scalesLeaves 2.5-5.5 cm long, 0.6-3 cm broad, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, undersurface especially silvery ash grey.  Flowers axillary, solitary or 2-3, covered with peltate scales on the outside.  Male flowers 8 mm long, perianth tube campanulate.  Hermaphrodite flowers longer; tepals 4, c 3.5 mm broad, ovate, stellately hairy and yellow within; anthers sessile, c. 3.5 mm long; ovary 2.5 mm long; style glabrous, 6-8 mm long.  Fruit elliptic-oblong, 1.5-2 cm long, reddish-brown, endocarp hard and bony, not ribbed.  Has a superficial resemblance with E. umbellata Thunb., but differs in the nature of the endocarp and the glabrous style" (Nasir, 1975; pp. 3-4).

"Shrub or tree, 3-7 m tall, densely silvery; leaves lanceolate, 3-10 cm long; flowers 12-15 mm long; fruit yellow with silvery scales" (Munz & Keck, 1959; p. 988).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests, riparian habitats.  The shrub grows commonly in wet places but also tolerates poor soils and drought.  The species quickly spreads and forms dense thickets that crowd out native vegetation and prevent the establishment of native trees.  It replaces native riparian forests in North America and causes loss of wildlife habitat"  (Weber, 2003; p. 149).

In California, "occasional escape in wet places" (Munz & Keck, 1959; p. 988).

Propagation:  Seed, dispersed by birds and small mammals. The species resprouts from its root system (Weber, 2003; p. 149).

Native range:  "S.E. Europe to Czechoslovakia and C. Russia, C. and W. Asia to W. Himalayas" (Nasir, 1975; pp. 3-4). Eurasia, naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Sea coasts, river and lake shores, dry river beds, mountains. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang. Also var. orientalis (Linnaeus) Kuntze
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
Munz, P. A./Keck, D. D. (1959) (p. 988)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  "Smaller trees may be removed with a weed wrench, larger plants should be cut at ground level".

Chemical:  "If stumps cannot be completely buried, they should be treated with a herbicide.  Effective herbicides are 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T"  (Weber, 2003; p. 149).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 17 JAN 2011.