Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Echinochloa stagnina
(Retz.) P. Beauv., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Panicum stagninum Retz.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: barnyard grass, burgu grass, hippo grass, long-awn water grass

Fijian: bangara gaddi

Habit:  grass

Description: 

Genus: "Annuals or perennials, coarse, often succulent grasses with compressed sheaths and linear, flat leaf blades; panicle somewhat compressed, made up of short, densely flowered racemes borne along a main axis; spikelets solitary or in irregular clusters along one side of raceme, subsessile, often stiffly hispid, the lower glume about half length of spikelet, pointed, the upper glume and sterile lemma often bearing a long awn, enclosing a membranous palea and sometimes also the male flower, the fertile lemma smooth, shiny, the lower margins inrolled, the apex not enclosed."  (Smith, 1979)

Species:  Annual, the culms erect, 60-120 cm high; leaf blades 15-45 cm long, 5-10 mm broad; panicle erect, the racemes ascending or appressed, 1.8-5 cm long; spikelets purplish-tinged, pubescent, 3-5 mm long, the awns 1-4 mm long"  (Smith, 1979; p. 340).

"Robust perennial, aquatic grass which floats in deep water or creeps with rhizomes and stolons, to 2 m long (reported up to 8 m long); readily roots and sprouts at nodes.  Stems terete, pith-filled, buoyant.  Leaf sheaths to 15 cm long; ligule a dense fringe of hairs 1.25-3 mm long; blades linear, acuminate, 6-45 cm - 5-15 mm with a rough margin and broad pale midrib.  Inflorescence a terminal panicle to 25 cm long, comprising 5-30 pseudospikes turned to one side, on a main axis 5-30 cm long."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 71-72).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Swamps, river banks, rice paddies, dams, and moist disturbed sites.  Major constituent of floating swamp vegetation in Papua New Guinea." (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 71-72).  In Fiji, "naturalized and fairly common" on Viti Levu (Smith, 1979; p. 340).  In Hawai‘i, "adventive in wet sites on O‘ahu" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1535).  In Samoa, "uncommon in wet areas" (Whistler, 1988; p. 52).

Propagation:  Seeds and stem fragments dispersed by water and birds (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 71-72).

Native range:  "Tropical Asia and Africa, but now widespread" (Smith, 1979; p. 340).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 340)
Vouchers cited: DA 2805, Greenwood 973, DA 8635, DA 10559, DA 11443, DA 3091, DA 7872, DA 8404, DA 9116, DA 3971, DA 3558, DA 8599, DA 8611, DA1247, DA 7598
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (pp. 71-72)
Sandaun, Sepik and Western Provinces.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 84)
In the Sepik and Western Districts,in permanent swamps and channels, where it is a major constituent of the floating swamp vegetation.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 52)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 134)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 134)

Additional information:
Additional online information about Echinochloa stagnina is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Echinochloa stagnina as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Echinochloa stagnina may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Henty, E. E. 1969. A manual of the grasses of New Guinea. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 1. Lae, New Guinea. 215 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Parham, J. W. 1972. Plants of the Fiji Islands. Revised edition. Government Printer, Suva. 462 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 1. 494 pp.

Swarbrick, John T. 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 124 pp.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. 1998. Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy: weeds target list. Second edition. Australian Quarantine & Inspection Service, Miscellaneous Publication No. 6/98. 110 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of western Polynesia. Technical Paper No. 194, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 69 pp.


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This page was created on 23 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.