Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Echinochloa crus-galli
(L.) P.Beauv., Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Panicum crus-galli L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Bikol: lagtom

Bontoc: sasablog

Chinese: bai

English: barnyard grass, barnyard millet, baronet grass, cocksfoot grass, cockshin grass, cockspur, cockspur grass, cockspur-panic, water grass, wild millet

French: bourgon, crête de coq, echinochloa pied-de-coq, ergot de coq, millard, panic pied-de-coq, pattes de poule, pied de coq

Ifugao: baobao

Japanese: ta-in-ubie

Manobo: dauana

Spanish: arrocillo, barbarroja, cola de caballo, hualcacho, jaraz fina, mijo japonés, pagarropa, panicello, pasto rayado, pata de gallo, pie de gallina, pierna o pata de gallo, zacate de agua

Tagalog: bayokibok, daua-daua

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annuals, culms stout, tufted, ascending in upper part, (1.5-) 3-10 (-14) dm tall, geniculate and decumbent below, glabrous, leafy.  Sheaths glabrous; ligule absent; blades flat, 4-12 (-16) mm wide, margins scabrous, a few papillae near the collar, these sometimes with hairs.  Inflorescences paniculate, erect or nodding, 5-12 (20) racemosely arranged lateral branches; spikelets 2.8-3.5 mm long, somewhat turgid to laterally compressed, apex acuminate to awned; first glume broad, 1.2-1.6 mm long, clasping, 3-nerved, scaberulous, apex apiculate to caudate, sometimes with an awn up to 0.5 mm long, second glume 2.5-3.2 mm long, 5-nerved, the lateral nerves pectinate near the margins and scabrous toward base, apex acuminate or with an awn 0.7-1.5 mm long; first lemma awned, the awn 0.5-30 mm long, palea usually well-developed, second lemma indurate, plano-convex, 2.2-3 (-3.3) mm long, smooth and glossy, 5-9-nerved, apex abruptly acute, awned, the awn up to 0.5 mm long; palea similar in texture to lemma.  Caryopsis pale brown, suborbicular or ovoid, 1.4-2 mm long, 1.2-1.6 mm in diameter"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1535).

Description from GrassBase.

A closely related species, also invasive, is Echinochloa crus-pavonis.  It is often difficult to distinguish from E. crus-galli.  The rather soft, pinkish, or pale purple panicle with crowded spikelets with very long awns is characteristic of E. crus-pavonis (Holm et al., 1977; p. 32).

Habitat/ecology:  "The weed prefers wet soils and can continue to grow when partially submerged.  On occasion it has been described as a weed of swamps and aquatic places.  In drier soils it is not as tall and the yield of seeds and the numbers of panicles and tillers are reduced.  It is normally found only at low and medium altitudes.  It grows best in rich, moist soils with a high nitrogen content, but it can also thrive on sands and loamy soils" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 35).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in wet or seasonally wet sites such as ditches or stream beds, and in cultivated fields, 0-520 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1535). In Fiji, "occurring near sea level in rice fields, swampy places, and along roadsides" (Smith, 1979; pp. 341-342). In New Caledonia, "Peut-être d'introduction pré-européenne. Largement répandu en stations humides. Semble d'après les spécimens nombreux avoir été plus abondant au 19e siècle qu'à présent" (MacKee, 1994; p. 59).

Propagation:  Seed.  "Some seeds germinate immediately, although others remain viable for several years"  (Waterhouse, 1994; p. 62).

Native range:  "Common in many subtropical and temperate areas" (Smith, 1979; pp. 341-342). Origin obscure, likely tropical Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"As elsewhere in the warm temperate and tropical regions of the world, this is a weed of cultivated land and open ground". Voucher cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5449 (CANB)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"As elsewhere in the warm temperate and tropical regions of the world, this is a weed of cultivated land and open ground". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 69 (CHR); W. Laing (CHR); E. Ralston 38 (CHR); E. Ralston 39 (CHR); a long awned variant, W. Laing (CHR); Nov. 1898, I. Robinson(NSW)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Uman Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 41)
var. hispidula
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 48)
Var. austro-japonensis; voucher cited: Fosberg & Evans 47372 (US, BISH, CANB, L).
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 41)
var. hispidula
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 47-48)
Var. hispidula; vouchers cited: Abbott & Bates 69 (US), Abbott & Bates 119 (US), Abbott & Bates 128 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 41)
var. austro-japonensis and var. hispidula
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 47-48)
Var. austro-japonensis; voucher cited: Fosberg & Wong 25500 (US); var. hispidula; voucher cited: Fosberg 46503 (US, BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 41)
var. hispidula
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 47-48)
Var. hispidula; vouchers cited: Evans 513 (US, BISH, POM, BRI), Fosberg 47026 (US, BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 41)
var. hispidula
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 47-48)
Var. hispidula; voucher cited: Wong 400 (US)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 341-342)
var. hispidula. Vouchers cited: DA 8632, DA 3974, DA 3562, DA 3577, DA 3579, DA 7522, DA 3096, DA 11234, Meebold 26533
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 335)
Voucher cited: Grant 5363
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
subsp. hispidula (A.J. Retzius) M. Honda
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11182 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6204 (PAP)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1535)
Voucher cited: Didrichsen s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Hosaka 1378 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Also var. formosensis Ohwi
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
var. austro-japonensis
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 48)
Var. austro-japonensis; voucher cited: Herbst & Allerton 2698 9US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 40)
Var. austro-japonensis
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 48)
Var. austro-japonensis; voucher cited: Fosberg 39464 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 5)
On Pinlep Islet. Vouchers cited: Fosberg 39464 (US), Fosberg 41407 (US)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répandue en stations humides. Semble avoir été plus abondante au 19è siècle qu'à présent.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 59)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répandue en stations humides. Semble avoir été plus abondante au 19è siècle qu'à présent.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: MacGillivray 33
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répandue en stations humides. Semble avoir été plus abondante au 19è siècle qu'à présent.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 59)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 241-242)
Voucher cited: CHR 156828
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 41)
var. hispidula
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 47-48)
Var. hispidula; voucher cited: Takamatsu 1386 (US, BISH)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 81)
A weed of cultivation in the tropics; in New Guinea from sea level to 7,000 ft.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 61)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 63)
At low and medium altitudes, in open wet places, rice paddies, etc.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 70)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 52)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2002) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990620-1 (BISH)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 61)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Damp weedy places, streamsides, rice fields. Throughout China.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 333)
In marshes, ditches and paddy fields.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 133)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 546)
"Waste land, cultivated land, often coastal and sometimes in swampy ground".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 37)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Damp weedy places, streamsides, rice fields. Throughout China.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Apparently introduced to Niue with pasture grass seed (Sykes, 1970; pp. 241-242). Not seen in recent surveys.

Control: 

Biological:  Waterhouse (1994, pp. 63-66) lists natural enemies of the species.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 27 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 19 APR 2013.