Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Dorstenia contrajerva
L., Moraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: snakewort, tusilla

French: herbe aux serpents, herbe-chapeau, racine de charchis

Spanish: cabalhau, cambahan, contaúl, contra de cobra, contrahierba, contrayerba, hierba de loro, hierba de sapo, mano de león, xcambalhan

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Genus:  "Perennial herbs with milky sap, with rhizomes, acaulescent or with somewhat elongate stems; leaves very variable, usually long-petiolate, mostly membranaceous, entire, dentate, angulate, or pinnate-lobate; flowers minute, monoecious, densely crowded on a usually large, explanate, commonly saucer-like, entire or angulate or lobate receptacle, the receptacles axillary, long-pedunculate, the flowers of both sexes numerous and intermixed, the pistillate flowers usually surrounded each by 3-4 staminate ones, the bracts minute and inconspicuous; perianths commonly connate with the receptacle, their margins sometimes obscurely bilobate or bidentate; stamens 2, rarely 1 or 3, the filaments at first inflexed, finally porrect and exserted; ovary included, the style excentric or almost lateral, exserted, 2-fid, the short branches subulate; fruits very small, finally protruded from the pits of the receptacle, the exocarp fleshy, the endocarp crustaceous; testa of the seed thin-membranaceous; endosperm none; cotyledons subequal, embracing the ascending radicle"  (Standley & Steyermark, 1946; p. 27).

Species:  "Plants acaulescent or nearly so, the stems, if any, very short; leaves often very numerous and crowded, long-petiolate, deeply and pinnately or almost palmately lobate, sparsely scabrous or puberulent, usually somewhat rough to the touch, the lobes acute to acuminate, narrow or broad; receptacles on long slender peduncles, quadrangular or deeply and irregularly lobate, accrescent in age and 2-5 cm. wide, scaberulous beneath"  (Standley & Steyermark, 1946; p. 27).

Habitat/ecology:  In Guatemala (native), "moist forest or thickets, ascending from sea level to about 1,800 meters"  (Standley & Steyermark, 1946; p. 27).  In Florida (U.S.), "moist, disturbed sites; 0-20 m"  (Flora of North America online).

Propagation:  Seeds, explosively expelled  (Flora of North America online).

Native range:  Mexico through Central America and the Caribbean Islands to northern South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 28338)
Taxon name on voucher: Dorstenia contrajerva L.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 464)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guayas, Manabi
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
Standley, Paul C./Steyermark, Julian A. (1946) (pp. 28-29)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
Standley, Paul C./Steyermark, Julian A. (1946) (pp. 28-29)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
Standley, Paul C./Steyermark, Julian A. (1946) (pp. 28-29)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
Standley, Paul C./Steyermark, Julian A. (1946) (pp. 28-29)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
Standley, Paul C./Steyermark, Julian A. (1946) (pp. 28-29)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
Standley, Paul C./Steyermark, Julian A. (1946) (pp. 28-29)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
San Martin
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 20 OCT 2011 and was last updated on 28 OCT 2011.