Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Dipogon lignosus
(L.) Verdc., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Dolichos lignosus L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Australian pea, dolichos pea, mile-a-minute, okie bean, purple dolichos

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Woody climber. Leaves stipulate; blades stipellate, pinnately 3-foliolate. Flowers in axillary racemes, bracts persistent, bracteoles more or less persistent; calyx campanulate; vexillary stamen free, remainder connate, anthers uniform; style cylindrical, dilated at base, strongly curved inwards at top and bottom, gently curved the opposite way in the middle, bearded on inside near top, stigma terminal. Pods cylindrical, attenuate at the ends; seeds estrophiolate but with a conspicuous white hilum."

Species: "Petioles up to ca 6 cm long; leaflet blades ovate-rhomboid, apex obtusely acuminate or acute, 3-10 cm x 1.5-4 cm (the largest leaflets occurring in cultivated specimens), more or less glabrous, paler on underside. Racemes up to ca 25 cm long, including peduncle, the flowers at the upper end; flowers pink-purple, 1-1.5 cm long; calyx 3-4 mm long, lobes shorter than tube, margin hairy; standard 1-1.5 cm long. Pods ca 4 cm long, glabrous" (Stanley & Ross, 1983; vol. 1, p. 69).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, forests, riparian habitats, coastal beaches.  A native of scrub and open forests that grows best in sunny locations, but seedlings can establish in shade.  The species is nitrogen-fixing and increases soil fertility levels.  The plant forms dense infestations that smother all other vegetation and prevent regeneration of native shrubs and trees"  (Weber, 2003; p. 140).

Propagation:  Large amounts of bird-dispersed seed. The seeds can remain dormant for several years (Weber, 2003; p. 140).

Native range:  "Native to southern Africa, cultivated and naturalized Australia, occurring in south-eastern Queensland" (Stanley & Ross, 1983; vol. 1, p. 69).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
Stanley, T. D./Ross, E. M. (1989) (p. 69)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 646)
"A vigorous climber scrambling over scrub and waste land".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)

Comments:  Reported to be an invasive species in Australia and New Zealand per Owen, 1997.

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings and small plants can be hand pulled or dug out, roots must be removed.  Larger vines can be cut and the roots dug out, or the cut stumps treated with herbicide.  Cutting before fruits develop prevents seed dispersal.  Follow-up treatments are necessary to control regrowth and seedlings". (Weber, 2003; p. 140).

Chemical:  "1. Cut down and paint stump (all year round): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (1g/L) or Tordon Brushkiller (100ml/L) or Banvine (200ml/L) or Woody Weedkiller (400ml/L) or Tordon Gold (200ml/L).
2. Dispose of all cut material at a refuse transfer station or burn.
3. Spray (spring-autumn): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (3g/10L + penetrant (knapsack) or 20g/100L + penetrant (spraygun)) or Banvine (120ml/10L) or Woody Weedkiller (240ml/10L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Additional information:
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Information sheet from Weedbusters New Zealand.

Additional online information about Dipogon lignosus is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Dipogon lignosus as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Dipogon lignosus may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Owen, S. J. 1997. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Working draft. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation.

Owen, S. J. 1998. Department of Conservation strategic plan for managing invasive weeds. Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Conservation. 86 pp.

Stanley, T. D./Ross, E. M. 1989. Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Misc. Pub. 81020. 3 Volumes.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Botany Division, DSIR, Christchurch. 1365 pp.

Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plants of the World. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 548 pp.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 12 JAN 2010.