Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Diplazium esculentum
(Retz.) Sw., Woodsiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

English: edible fern, vegetable fern

Hawaiian: hō‘i‘o

Japanese: kuware-shida

Habit:  fern

Description:  "Rhizome erect, often forming a slender leaning black trunk to 1 m tall, scaly at the apex. Scales c. 1 cm long, dark brown; margins finely toothed; apex long-acuminate. Fronds 1-2 m long, 0.5-1 m wide, erect to arcuate. Stipe black and scaly at the base, paler above. Lamina 2-3-pinnate, 0.5-1.5 m long, 0.5-1 m wide, dark green. Secondary pinnae variable in size, commonly 5-8 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm wide; margins very shallowly lobed; lobes toothed; basal lobes longer than the rest, glabrous beneath; veins simple or forked; lowest 3-5 pairs of adjacent vein groups anastomosing. Sori spreading along most veins; indusium thin, dark brown; margins becoming uneven with age"  (Flora of Australia online).

"Stems erect; scales brown, linear-lanceolate, margins dentate. Petiole 30-60 cm. Blade ovate, 2-pinnate to 2-pinnate-pinnatifid, 50-100 x 15-50 cm, base ± narrowed, apex abruptly acuminate. Pinnae 1-pinnate to 1-pinnate-pinnatifid. Pinnules oblong, base ± truncate, ± auriculate, apex acuminate, incised or lobed halfway to costule. Veins pinnate, anastomosing. Sori elongate, single or double, indusiate; indusia vaulted, thin, erose"  (Flora of North America online).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "grows abundantly in wet valleys and can even thrive in sheltered spots with adequate moisture on the dry leeward sides of the Islands.  It is a frequent volunteer in gardens, making it difficult to ascertain how often it is cultivated deliberately"  (Staples & Herbs, 2005; p. 29).

Propagation:  "Easily propagated by spores.  Older plants bear runners that produce plantlets"  (Staples & Herbs, 2005; p. 29).  "Forms clonal colonies by vegetative increase from root buds"  (Flora of Australia online).

Native range:  Eastern and southeastern Asia to the Philippines; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 21)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 21)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 21)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 21)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 21)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H80503 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 21)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Naturalised in a couple of swampy areas of south-eastern Queensland. Widely cultivated as an ornamental and for culinary purposes".
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Kyushu
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 35)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 10 AUG 2011 and was last updated on 19 AUG 2011.