Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Digitaria violascens
Link, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Digitaria chinensis (Nees) A. Camus; Digitaria hinensis sensu auct. Micr. non Hornem., pro maxima parte

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zi ma tang

Chuukese: fatil

English: crab grass, purple crabgrass, smooth crabgrass, violet crabgrass

Palauan: sau

Yapese: cafer

Habit:  grass

Description:  Grass.  "Stems decumbent-ascending, up to 60 cm tall; leaves with the sheaths pilose apically; blades scabrid, 2-6 (-10) cm long, 3-6 mm wide, often reddish; ligule membranous, 1 mm long; spikes 2-9, up to 12 cm long, digitate or subdigitate toward tip of flowering stalk; rachis narrowly winged, 0.5-0.7 mm wide; spikelets less than 2 mm long (usually 1.6-1.8 mm), slender on scabrid pedicels; first glume absent; second glume pubescent, with 2 kinds of hairs (smooth hairs and verrucose hairs), 1-1.2 mm long, 3-nerved; sterile lemma similar but longer, 1.5-1.8 mm long; lanceolate, 5-7-nerved, margin " ciliate; fertile lemma purplish, lanceolate, acute, 1.5-1.7 mm long, dark; caryopsis elliptic-ovate, whitish, 1-1.2 mm long" (Stone, 1970; pp. 211-212).

Description from GrassBase.
Description from the Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  Moist and semi-dry areas to 1700 m elevation or more.  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in mesic shrubland, grassland, and cultivated fields, 90-1,250 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1532).  In Fiji, "common on riverbanks and along the inner edges of mangrove swamps, on hillsides, in cultivation, and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1979; p. 324).  In Papua New Guinea in natural grasslands from sea level to 8,000 feet (Henty, 1969; p. 80).

Propagation:  Seed. A single inflorescence can produce hundreds of seeds.

Native range:  Southern and southeastern Asia to the Philippines; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9488 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9125 (BISH), W. Harris 30 (BISH), W. Harris 353 (BISH), W. Harris 317 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 35)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83854)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"Occasionally growing in sown grassland; possibly native in tropical Asia, but now widely naturalised as a weed species throughout the tropics, including Australia and the Pacific islands". Voucher cited: J. Pickard 3466 (NSW)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Collected at the entrance to the Takuvaine Valley per Bill Sykes (pers. com.).
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
invasive
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 160 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 127)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2395a (US), Glassman 2439 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 56)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58511 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2439 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka 3504 (BISH), L. Stemmermann 66031 (BISH), M. Takamatsu 805a (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 124235)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 124247)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 503138)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 589094)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 697534)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46673 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 124318)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 503374)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 324)
Voucher cited: DA 8888
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 324)
Vouchers cited: DA 5023, DA 8767, Smith 6632, DA 8843
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 324)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 185, DA 8270, DA 8654, DA 8090, DA 7794, DA 4004, DA 7398, DA 8328, DA 8474
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B. Toutain 4273 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 335)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 61102
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 100)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 335)
Vouchers cited: Moore 49, Fosberg & Sachet 63389, BRY 26061
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: P. Morat 6939 (PAP), P. Morat 7019 (PAP), J. Florence 3466 (PAP), J. Florence 3584 (PAP), J. Florence 5196 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492170)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607271)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 639440)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38271)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 335)
Voucher cited: Florence 5273
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10600 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 492303)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607270)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 644390)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 211-212)
Voucher cited: Stone 4840 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 124317)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1532)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1532)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1532)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1532)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1532)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1532)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58786 (US)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 241)
Voucher cited: CHR 168761
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 51)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 39-40)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 124319)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 124320)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 137)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 697535)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 80)
Widely-spread in New Guinea, mainly on abandoned garden land and at roadsides, but also in natural grassland, from sea level to 8,000 ft.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 53)
In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Parham 9012
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100381)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria violascens Link
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Buelow 2037
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 51)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hillsides, roadsides, weedy places; ca. 1000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 332)
In wasteland.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 53)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 542)
"Grassy roadsides".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 34)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hillsides, roadsides, weedy places; ca. 1000 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 128)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 APR 2013.