Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Digitaria longiflora
(Retz.) Pers., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Paspalum brevifolium Flüggé; Paspalum longiflorum Retz.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: chang hua ma tang

English: Indian crab grass, lesser crabgrass, wire crabgrass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual with slender, widely spreading stoloniferous culms and slender, erect, floriferous culm tips mostly 8-40 cm long.  Scale leaves at base of plant usually densely pubescent.  Sheaths rounded, variously hispid or hirsute to glabrous.  Ligules truncate, erose, mostly 0.3-1 mm long.  Blades variable, mostly 1-4 cm long and 1-3 mm wide but the lower ones to 8 cm long and 5 mm wide, typically with long, stiff, often papilla-based hairs scattered on both surfaces but occasionally glabrous.  Inflorescence of 2, occasionally 3, slender branches 2-7 cm long on a long, filiform peduncle.  Spikelets mostly 1.3-1.7 mm long, in pairs along the midrib of a broadly winged rhachis.  Both spikelets of the pair similar and pedicelled but the pedicels unequal in length.  First Glume typically absent but occasionally at least vestigial.  Second glume about as long as spikelet, pubescent on margins with 5 more or less equidistant nerves.  Lemma of lower floret as long as spikelet, pubescent on margins at least near apex, with 7 more or less equidistant nerves.   Lemma and palea of upper floret light-coloured, usually grayish" (Dassanayake, 1994; p. 167).

Description from GrassBase.
Description from the Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  "[M]ost common in light textured soils...along roadsides and in waste areas.  In southeast Asia, found from sea level to 1200 m.  It survives in open scrub, deciduous forests and bamboo forests and on rice bunds in Asia" "[M]ost common in light textured soils...along roadsides and in waste areas.  In southeast Asia, found from sea level to 1200 m.  It survives in open scrub, deciduous forests and bamboo forests and on rice bunds in Asia" (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 301-302).  In Sri Lanka, "a common grass of open, moist field borders, roadsides, and pasturelands at low to medium elevations" (Dassanayake, 1994; p. 167).  In Sri Lanka, "a common grass of open, moist field borders, roadsides, and pasturelands at low to medium elevations" (Dassanayake, 1994; p. 167).

Propagation:  Seed, spread by wind, water and animals (Holm et al., 1997; p. 302).

Native range:  "Native throughout the Old World tropics and introduced into the New World tropics and subtropics" (Dassanayake, 1994; p. 167).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 38)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 38)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 38)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 127)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: T. Hosokawa 5875 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 121)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 121)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Westerrn Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Field margins, grasslands, weedy places; 600-1100 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 332)
On farmlands.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 34)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Field margins, grasslands, weedy places; 600-1100 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 17)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Rivers, Julie (2004) (p. 2)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 30 MAY 2005 and was last updated on 17 APR 2013.