Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Digitaria ciliaris
(Retz.) Koeler, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henrard

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xian mao ma tang

English: bamboo grass, common crabgrass, crabgrass, Henry's crabgrass, large crabgrass, smooth crabgrass, southern crabgrass, summer grass, tropical crab grass, tropical finger grass

French: digitaire ciliée

Hawaiian: kūkaepua‘a

Japanese: mehishiba

Mangarevan: mato mo

Marshallese: wûjooj, wûjooj aetok

Niuean: saulangi

Spanish: hierba conejo, pangola, pata de gallina

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Tufted or creeping annual grassCulms ascending, 20-100 cm long, base decumbent, rooting at the lower hairy or glabrous nodes.  Leaf sheath keeled, bearing long tubercle-based hairs or sometimes glabrous, margins membranous; ligule membranous, truncate, 1-3 mm long.  Leaf blade 4-25 x 0.3-1 cm; surfaces glabrous or hairy; one margin often crinkled.  Inflorescence of 4-12 spreading, subdigitate racemes mostly 7-15 cm long, in 1-3 whorls; rachis 3-angled with scabrous margins.  Spikelets lanceolate, 2.5-3.3 mm long, in unequally pedicellate pairs.  Lower glume reduced to a scale, upper glume 1/2-3/4 as long as spikelet, acute, 3-nerved, margins hairy.  Sterile lemma as long as spikelet, 7-nerved, with lateral nerves crowded towards the margins, leaving bread interspaces along midvein" (Whistler, 1995; p. 164).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "It is usually found at low elevations and in warm regions.  It frequently grows in lawns, lowland pastures, field crops, plantation crops, open ground and disturbed areas.  It grows from sea level to 1,600 m in Indonesia.  Thriving in moist areas, it can be come a major problem in irrigated lands"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 251).

Sunny disturbed areas to 900 m elevation (Whistler, 1995; p. 164). In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and abundant in lawns and pastures, where it forms thick mats, 0-920m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1530-1531). In Fiji, "common in cultivated areas, waste places, along roadsides, and on open hillsides, occurring from sea level to about 1,000 m" (Smith, 1979; pp. 326-327).

Propagation:  "The plants produce many seeds and several seed crops may be produced each year if grazing or mowing occurs.  The plants may also spread and reproduce by rooting at the nodes and, in this manner, can form thick, nearly prostrate mats 0.6 m or more in diameter" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 251).

Native range:  Worldwide, exact native range obscure (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 39)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3448
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35351)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 45)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3327
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 12125)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island   Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3438
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Sykes 93
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 35)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83856)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430396)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 16352)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"Probably introduced for fodder but common as a weed throughout the tropics". Voucher cited: L.M. Bingley 2 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Probably introduced for fodder but common as a weed throughout the tropics". Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 637 (CHR); R.M.Laing (CHR); M.Lazarides 8048 (CANB, K); Jan. 1900, Dr. Axford (NSW)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31606 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 124236)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59037
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 64)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59189
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (pp. 11-12)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1801 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31401 (US, BISH, Fo), Fosberg 31366 (US, BISH, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 124238)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 697529)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 124237)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 124239)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
?
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 697531)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 697532)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 699661)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manuae Atoll (Northern Cook Islands)   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 10180)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664867)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 124209)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 124210)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 415800)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664864)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664865)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 699845)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Genovesa Group
Genovesa Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Darwin, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Rábida Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 27)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Flynn 6078 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 56)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 124301)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 447848)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 124306)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 326-327)
Voucher cited: DA 8942
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 326-327)
Vouchers cited: DA 8733, DA 11774, DA 8746, DA 10474, DA 11768
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 326-327)
Vouchers cited: DA 10336, DA 8160, Gibbs 867, DA 2429, DA 7995, DA 9104, DA 8077, DA 7046, DA 8379, DA 9386, DA 7547, DA 9322, DA 9095
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 31663)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 31664)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31669)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31672)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 31756)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: St. John 14685 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: St. John 14604 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Vouchers cited: St. John 14569 (BISH), Fosberg 11095 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: St. John 14819 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 41048)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1975) (voucher ID: PTBG 8960)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B. Toutain 4216 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 555091)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39481)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Voucher cited: K. R. Wood 6423 (PTBG, US)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood, S.P. Perlman, B. Kohumoetini & J.-P. Kautai 6433 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554392)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 64841 (US), Fosberg 64834 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10255 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642911)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 334)
Voucher cited: Florence 5024
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 574247)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: P. Morat 6932 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 334)
Voucher cited: BRY 26047
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 639442)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 493246)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 209)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649447)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649457)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649558)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 697530)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000214)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000215)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 11)
Occasional near quarters.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: K.R. Wood & VanderWerf 9876 (BISH, PTBG, US), K.R. Wood et al. 11343 (BISH, PTBG, US), K.R. Wood 11535 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Tern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 6)
Possibly seen near boat dock house. Could have been Sporobolus pyramidatus. If present, very rare.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Japan (offshore islands)
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
?
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 37)
Not seen in 1973 or 1975. Vouchers cited: Hatheway 518 (US), Degener & Hatheway 21315 (US), Degener & Degener 24645 (US), Degener & Degener 24648 (US), Clegern 42 (BISH)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Orona (Hull) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54813 (US, HAW), Clegern 113 (BISH). Also ssp. chrysoblephara (Fig. & De Not.) S.T. Blake; voucher cited: Jenkin 4 (K)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Orona (Hull) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 51562)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 4)
"Common; patches in grassy and ruderal areas, sometimes intermixed with vines and shrubs".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 82)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 39499. Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 39499 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 124240)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 527507)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 527535)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Rongelap (Roñlap) Atoll native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 3)
"Common; in lawns and ruderal areas, including lawn at B&B; ID needs confirmation".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 50)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A6)
Occasional, small patches along roadway and in ruderal areas. Voucher 0726201002 (BISH, GUAM, PTBG)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0517200907
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49853)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 59604 (US)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 166)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 541)
"Common to very common in waste and open places".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 240)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168759, CHR 168758, CHR 168764
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 42)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432402)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Voucher: Lorence 9823 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 37)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Bab el Omekang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Bkul a Chesemiich Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngemelis Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Voucher: Lorence 9863 (PTBG, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngemelis Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 154)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngidech Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Pulo Ana Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 94)
Digitaria sp.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Given s. n.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Whistler 112
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83897)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83908)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 421408)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 66)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 639261)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Drake, D. R./Whistler, W. A./Motley, T. J./Imada, C. T. (1996)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Soakai 457
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 352)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1530-1531)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: Branckamp s.n. (1936), Lyons 10, Fosberg 34936
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 4)
Not seen in 1961 and 1963.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 61)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island native
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalized
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) probably native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, weedy places. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 331)
Along roadside and on hillslopes.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 252)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 541)
"Common to very common in waste and open places".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 34)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 252)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island probably native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, weedy places.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 252)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 19)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 7162 (US), Stoddart 7203 (US)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 APR 2013.