Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Digitalis purpurea
L., Plantaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7.5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Digitalis amandiana Samp.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: mao di huang

English: digitalis, foxglove, purple foxglove

Korean: digitalriseu

Spanish: campanilla, dedalera

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Biennial or short-lived perennial. Basal rosette giving rise to densely hairy simple stems to c. 2.5 m high. Petiole long and winged; upper stem leaves with much shorter petioles. Lamina 10-25 x 3.5-12 cm, lanceolate to elliptic or ovate, hairy to glabrate above, ± grey-tomentulose with crisped hairs beneath, crenate or crenulate; base cuneate to attenuate. Racemes to c. 60 cm long, with many nodding flowers. Bracts lanceolate, shortly glandular-hairy, decreasing in size upwards, > pedicels; pedicels tomentulose, 5-15 mm long. Calyx 8-17 mm long, shortly glandular-hairy, deeply lobed; lobes imbricate, ovate, obtuse or acute. Corolla mostly 3.5-5 cm long; tube campanulate and inflated above constricted base, usually pinkish purple with dark purple white-ringed spots in lower part, sometimes pure white, glabrous; lobes short and rounded. Stamens included. Capsule 10-15 mm long, ovoid. Seeds oblong, alveolate, truncate"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1183).

Habitat/ecology:  "It is frost resistant, drought sensitive and prefers moist soils in open positions.  In Victoria [Australia], it has invaded moist and wet sclerophyll forest, riparian areas and rainforest.  Infestations also exist in alpine areas"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 155).  In New Zealand, "mostly open disturbed areas, especially poor pastures, scrub and forest margins, stony river beds, roadsides, tracksides" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1183).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "It is propagated from seeds which are probably dispersed by wind or water"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 155).

Native range:  Europe and Morocco; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 69574)
Taxon name on voucher: Digitalis purpurea L.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 155)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Sometimes naturalized in disturbed areas; low elevations".
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1183)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 13 DEC 2008 and was last updated on 14 APR 2013.