Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Dichanthium annulatum
(Forssk.) Stapf, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shuang hua cao

English: Angleton grass, bluestem, Diaz bluestem, Hindi grass, Kleberg bluestem, marvel grass, ringed dichanthium, sheda grass, two-flowered goldenbeard, vunda blue grass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennials; culms 25-100 cm tall, geniculately ascending, nodes pubescent.  Sheaths lax, terete, 3-4 cm long, glabrous except finely pubescent on margins near throat; ligule a shallow membrane, ca. 1.5 mm long; blades linear-acuminate, 3-30 cm long, 2-7 mm wide, margins sparsely pubescent and scaberulous, apex attenuate, base subcordate.  Inflorescences composed of (1) 2-15 subdigitate, short-pedunculate racemes, each raceme 3-7 cm long, peduncles glabrous; spikelet pairs subimbricate along a slender filiform axis, with 0-6 smaller homogamous spikelet pairs at base, the joints and pedicels flattened, margins setose; sessile spikelet narrowly oblong, 2-6 mm long, first glume cartilaginous, slightly concave, villous below the middle, pubescent with long bulbous-based hairs above the middle, obscurely nerved, margins inflexed, apex obtuse to subacute, second glume narrowly boat-shaped, 2-6 mm long, 3-nerved, scabrid on back of the midnerve toward apex, obscurely scaberulous over the back toward apex, hyaline, first lemma delicately hyaline, oblong-rounded, setose near tip, ca. 2 mm long, palea absent, second lemma linear, ca. 1.6 mm long, hyaline, with the central nerve excurrent as a geniculate, twisted awn 8-25 mm long; pedicellate spikelet with first glume narrowly ovate-truncate, ca. 3 mm long, 11-nerved, pectinate-setose along the back of the inflexed margins, midnerve setose on the back toward apex.  Caryopsis oblong to obovate, dorsally compressed, ca. 2 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1528).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in lawns, urban areas, and along roadsides, 10-340 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1528).  In Fiji, "from sea level to about 150 m on open hillsides, seashores, in canefields, and along roadsides" (Smith, 1979; p. 384). In New Caledonia, "commun en pâturages, bords de routes et autres lieux incultes" (MacKee, 1994; p. 59). "Occasional in disturbed places, particularly in dry coastal areas" (Whistler, 1988; p. 50).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Northern Africa through the Middle East to India and Indonesia (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1528).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island probably introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 384-385)
Voucher cited: DA 8722
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island probably introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 384-385)
Vouchers cited: DA 9732, DA 15211, DA 9734, DA 10285, DA 3496, Gillespie 3163.9, DA 7383, Degener & Ordonez 13512, DA 9106, DA 2024
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 10)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40028 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Hughes 317 (US)
Sparingly naturalized along roadsides.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1528)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 115 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Commune en pâturages, bords de routes et autres lieux incultes.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: Vieillard 1513
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 239)
Voucher cited: CHR 168786
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Uncommon
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3160)
Taxon name on voucher: Dichanthium annulatum
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Whistler 5127
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mountain slopes, disturbed ground; 100-2200 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 331)
On grassy hillslopes.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 33)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mountain slopes, disturbed ground; 100-2200 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 125)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana, Texas


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This page was created on 1 SEP 2002 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.