Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Desmodium heterophyllum
(Willd.) DC., Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Hedysarum heterophyllum Willd.; Meibomia heterophylla (Willd.) Kuntze

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yi ye shan ma huang

English: hetero, Spanish clover, variable-leaf ticktrefoil

Fijian: senivakathengu, wakutu

Japanese: kawariba-makie-hagi

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs, prostrate or ascending, 10-70 cm tall. Young parts spreading pubescent. Leaves 3-foliolate, often intermixed with 1-foliolate leaves on lower part; petiole 0.5-1.5 cm; terminal leaflet blade broadly elliptic or broadly elliptic-obovate, 1-3 x 0.8-1.5 cm, base obtuse, apex rounded or nearly truncate, often emarginate. Flowers solitary or binate in leaf axils or 2 or 3 scattered on rachis. Pedicel 1-2.5 cm. Calyx 5-parted; upper 2 lobes deeply incised near base, villous and minutely hooked hairy. Corolla purple-red to white, ca. 5 mm; standard broadly obovate; wings obovate or narrowly elliptic, shortly auriculate; keel slightly curved, shortly clawed. Stamens diadelphous. Ovary adpressed pubescent. Legume narrowly oblong, straight or curved, 1.2-1.8 cm x ca. 3 mm, lower suture deeply undulate, upper suture straight, 3-5-jointed, flat; articles broadly oblong or quadrate, 3.5-4 mm, glabrescent, reticulate veined"  (Flora of China online).

"A prostrate spreading sometimes weakly ascending somewhat mat-forming herb with tough woody roots and small trifoliolate leaves; stems pilose; leaflets elliptic-obovate, rounded or notched at tip, mostly 1.3-2 cm long, short-petiolulate, puberulent dorsally; inflorescences axillary, short; flowers 5-6 mm long, sometimes solitary; peduncle 1-1.5 cm long, pilose; calyx pubescent; corolla pink; standard sessile; pods 4-6-jointed, 1.6-2 cm long, 3 mm wide, constricted between the joints only on the ventral rib, sometimes slightly dehiscent"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 331-332).

Habitat/ecology:  "In Fiji, occurring at elevations from near sea level to about 1,000 m and abundantly naturalized in pastures, grassland, plantations, waste places, and villages, and sometimes along forest trails" (Smith, 1985; p. 194).  "Uncommon to occasional in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 23).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mascarene Islands to India, Southeast Asia, Philippines and Taiwan (Stone, 1970; pp. 331-332).  "Southeastern Asia to Malesia and perhaps to the Mariana Islands, now widely naturalized in the Pacific eastward to Hawai'i." (Smith, 1985; p. 194).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Kanehira 2183 (NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
var. heterophyllum
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 92)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mbengga Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 194)
Voucher cited: DA 9618
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rambi Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 194)
Voucher cited: DA 21 Jan. 48
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 194)
Voucher cited: DA 8884
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 194)
Vouchers cited: DA 5029, Smith 6871, Greenwood 604, DA 8825
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vatulele Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 194)
Voucher cited: Tothill 122
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 194)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 518B, Smith 4761, DA 9430, Smith 9500, DA 9597, DA 6019, Gillespie 3415, Smith 7222, DA 9963, Bryan 183, Degener & Ordonez 13513
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 331-332)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
Native per Stone, introduced per Fosberg et al.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Herbst 9791 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 20)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Hobdy 2918 (BISH), Hobdy 2920 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 12)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H50104 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Evans M-84 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 82)
Vouchers cited: Toutain 4125 (NOU), Toutain 4156 (NOU)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 109)
var. buergeri
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 286)
In open, usually damp grasslands, old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 23)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 65)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 23)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Riversides, roadsides, field margins, grasslands; 200-500 m".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 143)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 33)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Riversides, roadsides, field margins, grasslands; 200-500 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 14 DEC 2010.