Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Delairea odorata
Lem., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Senecio mikanioides Otto ex Walp.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: African ivy, Cape ivy, climbing groundsel, German ivy, Italian ivy, parlor ivy

Spanish: senecio

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Fleshy perennial vines, woody at least below; stems 1-30 (- 60) dm long, glabrous throughout.  Leaves broadly deltate, blades 3-10 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, palmately veined, shallowly 3-10-lobed, petioles 1.5-7 cm long.  Heads in dense terminal and axillary cymes, discoid; involucral bracts 3-4 mm long; disk corollas yellow, ca. 4.5 mm long.  Achenes ca. 2 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 356).

A perennial, bushy vine that can cover vegetation to a considerable height.  Leaves are leathery, fleshy, lobed and generally cordate-hastate.  The stems are green or purple.  In spring, the plant is covered with yellow flowers (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 155).

Habitat/ecology:  Dry forest, moist forest, coastal areas. "This noxious, light-loving vine grows rapidly into the emergent layers of forests where it festoons the vegetation.  It can smother native vegetation and affect regeneration.  Senecio grows in open, wet habitats, generally above 800 m" (Smith, 1985; pp. 202-203).  "Invades sensitive and fragile bushland, suppressing the growth and germination of native species by carpeting the ground and rooting down at leaf nodes. Also grows into the forest canopy, kills trees and creates light gaps, leading to more weed invasion"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in relatively dry areas" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 356).

Propagation:  The seeds are wind-dispersed. Also spreads vegetatively.  "Produces many tiny seeds, each equipped with a small hairy parachute, like dandelion.  Seeds sail on wind or water, well into good bushland. Often dumped on bushland edges, where it will regrow from stem fragments"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).

Native range:  Lesotho and South Africa (Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape); cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 18)
"Perhaps a recent escape from cultivation which will need to be watched as it has proved to be a serious pest in, for example, parts of Hawai‘i". Voucher cited: P.S. Green 2339 (K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 13)
As Senecio mikanioides Otto ex Walp.
Invasive
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 356, 1863)
Voucher cited: Rock 3412 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2010) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 070404-01 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 356, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: OED 2009051206 (BISH). "Efforts to control this population are underway".
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Harley, Barbara (2009)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 155)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 275)
"Waste places, scrubland, forest margins, especially in coastal areas".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  On New Zealand noxious weed list and banned from sale in that country. A weed in Australia and the US.

Control:  "Easiest controlled at flowering, when highly visible and before seed is produced"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Physical: "Hand pull small plants, or dig out roots (all year round). Leave on site to rot down"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).

Chemical: 1% Roundup + 0.2% Pulse or Tordon Brushkiller or Grazon; Banvine at 180ml per 15 l by knapsack; apply to actively growing plants (Timmins and Mackenzie, 1995; pp. 249-251).

"Asteraceae are generally sensitive to triclopyr. Probably sensitive to other hormone-type herbicides as well.  Bryon Stevens (DOFAW) recommended cutting stems of vines supported in vegetation, leaving the cut portions to dry out and spraying the foliage of the remaining plants with glyphosate.  Large patches can be controlled with the foliar glyphosate at 10% of product applied by the drizzle method, however he noted that resprouts are common and will need follow-up treatment"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"1. Stump swab (all year round): glyphosate (100ml/L) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (1g/L). Leave on site to rot down. 2. Cut stems below waist height, spray below this point (spring-summer to actively growing plants): glyphosate (10ml/L (knapsack) or 2L/100L (spraygun)) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (2g/10L (knapsack) or 20g/100L (spraygun)) or Tordon Brushkiller (60ml/10L) or Banvine (12ml/L) or Yates Woody Weedkiller (24ml/L) or amitrole (150ml/15L (knapsack) or 2L/100L (spraygun)). Add penetrant to all mixes"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 8 APR 2013.